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 Hero’s Journey  Post-Aristotelian  Dramatica Theory.

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Presentation on theme: " Hero’s Journey  Post-Aristotelian  Dramatica Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1  Hero’s Journey  Post-Aristotelian  Dramatica Theory

2  A system to help authors create stories. Story Paradigm Narrative Theory Checklist

3   Joseph Campbell – – Myths  Gerpge Lucas – 1944-? – Implementer  Christopher Vogler – Hollywood  John Truby – Modernize  Hero's Journey

4   Lajos Egri – – Founder  Syd Field – ~1940-? – Modernizer  Robert McKee – 1941-? – Hack  Michael Hauge – ~1950-? – Hack  Post-Aristotelian

5   Chris Huntley – ~1960-? – Founder  Melanie Anne Phillips – ~1960-? – Tag-along  Jim Hull - ~1970-? – Analyst  Dramatica Theory

6  Progress

7  Reflection  Hands: Which of these three story paradigms have you heard of before?  Which proponents?  Post-Its: What questions are you anticipating already?

8   Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell George Lucas Christopher Vogler John Truby Discussion

9   Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell George Lucas Christopher Vogler John Truby Discussion

10 Joseph Campbell ( )

11  The fundamental structure of ancient myths. Comparative mythology Compare scenes … …of old stories.

12  The old stories are all the same. The Monomyth Odysseus Penelope Prometheus The Buddha Osiris Jesus Christ Telemachus

13 The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949)

14  “A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.” The Hero with a Thousand Faces

15  Two Sections  Stages: Universal scenes, naturally leading from one to the other.  Archetypes: Jungian characters, universally recognized across humanity.

16  Seventeen Stages Call to Adventure Refusal of the Call Supernatural Aid Crossing the Threshold Belly of The Whale Road of Trials Meeting the Goddess Female Temptation Atonement with the Father Apotheosis/Apostasis The Ultimate Boon Refusal of Return Magic Flight Rescue from Without Crossing the Return Threshold Master of Two Worlds Freedom to Live

17 The Monomyth again In your handouts

18 J. J. Abrams (1966-?)

19  The final season DVD discusses Campbell. Abrams repeatedly quotes Joseph Campbell, and tells how each character is a hero in their own way. Lost

20  About the Monomyth and LOST. Video

21  We’ll Repeat the Stages For lack of time, we will not go into detail. We will repeat with Christopher Vogler’s 12-stage version. To study the original 17 stages, go to ‘Monomyth’ on Wikipedia.

22  Other scholars test the Monomyth. Others Confirm Odysseus Penelope Prometheus The Buddha Osiris Jesus Christ Telemachus Adam and Eve Gilgamesh Dionysus Krishna Odin Muhammad Jason Sigurd King Arthur Poseidon Zoroaster Roland Beowulf

23   Post-Its in pairs: Name stories that follow the pattern. Reflection

24   Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell George Lucas Christopher Vogler John Truby Discussion

25 George Lucas (1944-?)

26  “… it came to me that there really was no modern use of mythology … and I started reading Joe’s … The Hero with a Thousand Faces. I began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classic motifs … so I modified my next draft …” Star Wars

27  About the Monomyth and Star Wars. Video

28 The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949)

29  Two Sections  Stages: Universal scenes, naturally leading from one to the other.  Archetypes: Jungian characters, universally recognized across humanity.

30  Archetypes are recurring patterns of human behavior. They are symbolized by standard types of characters. Archetypes Stereotype Quick to identify

31   Heroes are the central figures in stories.  Everyone is the hero of his or her own myth. Hero

32   Heralds bring the Call to Adventure.  Could be a person or an event. Herald

33   The Supernatural World is new and difficult.  Mentors guide the hero.  It is a person, or sometimes a principle. Mentor

34   Threshold Guardians stand in the way at important turning points.  The first comes in the Crossing the Threshold stage.  Includes jealous enemies and professional gatekeepers,  and the Hero’s own fears and doubts. Threshold Guardian

35   Shadows are the villains and enemies.  It might be the enemy within.  They represent the repressed possibilities of the hero. His or her potential for evil.  Or repressed grief, anger, frustration, or creativity. Something dangerous if it doesn’t have an outlet. Shadow

36   Shapeshifters represent change. The way other people keep changing.  Or how the Hero’s perceptions of them change.  Often of the opposite sex. Sometimes two-faced.  Sometimes literally a shapeshifer, like a vampire or a werewolf. Shapeshifter

37   Tricksters are clowns and mischief-makers.  They represent our the Hero’s own mischievous subconscious.  They urge the Hero to change.  They provide relief during tense action. Trickster

38   Joseph Campbell suggested more archetypes.  And more items and relationships.  To read more, look up Carl Jung. And More From Jung

39  Star WarsThe MatrixHarry Potter The Mentor Obi-Wan KenobiMorpheusHagrid/Dumbledore The Oracle YodaThe OracleSybill Trelawney The Prophecy Luke will overthrow the emperor Morpheus will find the One Harry will have the power to vanquish the Dark Lord Trickster C3POMouseFred & George Han The Herald R2-D2Punky friends invite Neo to the party Letters Failed Hero BiggsCypherLord Voldemort Wearing Enemy's Skin Luke and Han wear stormtrooper outfits Neo jumps into agent's skin - Shapeshifter Han SoloCypherSnape Animal familiar R2-D2-Hedwig Chasing a lone animal into the enxhanted wood Luke follows R2-D2 into the Jundland Wastes Neo "follows the white rabbit" to the nightclub - Other Mythic Elements

40 The Power of Myth (1988)

41   Documentary on the Monomyth and Star Wars  Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers  Filmed at Skywalker Ranch The Power of Myth

42 The Mythology of Star Wars (1999)

43   Bill Moyers and George Lucas  Follow-up to ‘The Power of Myth’ The Mythology of Star Wars

44  Reflection  Common discussion: Who is the first Threshold Guardian in a favorite movie of yours.  Who is the Mentor in the Matrix?  Two-and-two: Can you already see something good with the Monomyth?  Something bad?

45  Two Champions Christopher Vogler  Movie-centric  Practical  12 stages John Truby  Author-centric  Theoretical  22 stages

46   Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell George Lucas Christopher Vogler John Truby Discussion

47 Christopher Vogler (1949-?)

48  A Hollywood screenwriter who read Joseph Campbell. And then saw Star Wars. Screenwriter

49  Both old and new stories follow the pattern. The Monomyth Odysseus Penelope Prometheus The Buddha Osiris Jesus Christ Telemachus Adam and Eve Gilgamesh Dionysus Krishna Odin Muhammad Jason Sigurd King Arthur Poseidon Zoroaster Roland Beowulf The Hobbit The Dark Tower American Gods I Am Legend Lord of the Rings Ender's Game Harry Potter

50   A Practical Guide to The Hero With a Thousand Faces  Summarized Campbell's work.  Made it practical for Hollywood.  Reduced the Monomyth to 12 useful stages. The 7-page memo

51   Vogler’s memo is one of the most influential, legendary memos in the history of Hollywood. Legendary

52  The Lion King AladdinBeauty and the Beast Vogler’s Disney Movies

53 The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers (1992)

54 The Hero’s Outer Journey

55 The Hero’s Inner Journey

56  Vogler became a script consultant. Script Consultant

57  Indiana Jones The Matrix BatmanAvatar Movies

58  Vogler on the Monomyth and the Matrix. Video

59  Books Richard Adams Watership Down Dan Brown The Da Vinci Code J. K. Rowling Harry Potter

60 Harry Potter and Star Wars Even many Internet memes are based on the Monomyth.

61 Orson Scott Card (1951-?)

62   Michael Collings  ‘The Leading Edge: Magazine of Science Fiction and Fantasy Vol. 16’  Ender Wiggins fulfills all stages of the Hero’s Journey. Ender’s Game

63  Vogler mostly works with Hollywood. The Monomyth Applied Odysseus Penelope Prometheus The Buddha Osiris Jesus Christ Telemachus Adam and Eve Gilgamesh Dionysus Krishna Odin Muhammad Jason Sigurd King Arthur Poseidon Zoroaster Roland Beowulf The Hobbit The Dark Tower American Gods I Am Legend Lord of the Rings Ender's Game Harry Potter Spock The Neverending Story Spongebob Squarepants Jaws Monsters Inc Wall-E Rocky Dawnbreakers Kick-Ass Scott Pilgrim

64 Neil Gaiman (1960-?)

65  “I think I got about half way through The Hero with a Thousand Faces and found myself thinking ‘if this is true — I don’t want to know.’ “I really would rather not know this stuff. I’d rather do it because it’s true and because I accidentally wind up creating something that falls into this pattern than be told what the pattern is.” Gaiman Objects

66  Reflection  Post-Its in pairs: Match Monomyth stages to Avatar scenes.  Open discussion: Does knowing the Monomyth detract from stories?

67   Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell George Lucas Christopher Vogler John Truby Discussion

68 John Truby (~1950-?)

69   John Truby is a screenwriter, director and screenwriting teacher.  He has consulted on over 1,000 film scripts over the past three decades.  He sells the screenwriting software program Blockbuster (originally “Storyline Pro”) John Truby’ Background

70   John Truby has not written anything himself. Hack?

71 The All-American Boy (1973)

72  Students Sleepless in Seattle The Addams Family Scream Nightmare on Elm Street The Mask of Zorro Kiss of the Spider Woman Leap of Faith Outbreak Beetlejuice Pirates of the Caribbean The Negotiator Back to School

73   Others emphasize the inner transformation of the characters.  John Truby emphasizes the moral effect their actions have on others. John Truby’s Argument

74 The Anatomy of a Story 22 Steps to Becoming a Master Storyteller (2007)

75 22 Building Blocks A more open, modern Monomyth

76   The book contains 22 scenes, not steps.  It does contain nine steps, though. Wrong Subtitle

77   Create your premise:  State your story idea in a single sentence.  This may take several hours to perfect. Step 1

78   Use the seven key steps of story structure:  Weakness and need Desire Opponent Plan Battle Self-Revelation New Equilibrium Step 2

79   Create your characters:  Create characters from your premise. Step 3

80   Outline the moral argument:  What is the theme inherent in your premise? Step 4

81   Create the story world:  Create the world as an outgrowth of your hero. Step 5

82   Create a web of symbols:  Figure out symbols that highlight and communicate different aspects of the characters, the story world, and the plot. Step 6

83   Create your plot:  Follow the 22 “steps” of the book's subtitle. Step 7

84   Create the scene weave:  Before writing, list every scene in the story, and weave all plotlines and themes into a tapestry. Step 8

85   Scene construction and symphonic dialogue:  Construct each scene to further the development of your hero. Step 9

86 Truby’s Blockbuster software (1996)

87  Introduction to Truby’s Blockbuster software. Video

88 Randy Ingermanson (1958-?)

89   bit.ly/18vCf6 The Snowflake Method

90  Reflection  Post-Its in pairs: The Monomyth exists in versions from three to several hundred scenes.  Which version would help you?  Open discussion: What tools do you use to overcome writer’s block?

91   Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell George Lucas Christopher Vogler John Truby Discussion

92   Open discussion: How can you use the Monomyth in your stories?  My view: The Monomyth is stale and not very useful.  Except for fantastic spectacles.

93   Myth scholars doubt its validity.  Feminists criticize its male bias.  Hollywood sees diminishing returns.  Writers doubt its usefulness to them. The Monomyth is bad

94   The Monomyth has no support in mythology.  Scholars view generalizing claims with suspicion.  Donald J. Consentino:  ‘It is just as important to stress differences as similarities, to avoid creating a (Joseph) Campbell soup of myths that loses all local flavor.’ Scholars Doubt

95   The monomyth structure lacks originality.  It leads to clichés.  The characters are even called archetypes.  Avatar got a thorough bashing. Hollywood Doubts

96  About the Monomyth and Avatar. Video

97   The Hero’s Journey was designed for ancient myths.  It was never meant for modern stories.  It fails to critically investigate or interpret narrative. Writers Doubt

98 David Brin (1950-?)

99   It reflects cross-cultural historical similarities.  Not some deeper human insight. Old Stories for Feudal Society

100   Kings and priests used the Monomyth to justify tyranny.  Until recently, storytellers depended on the oligarchy for their livelihood.  The aristocracy punished irreverence. The Monomyth is Evil

101   Those historical factors have disappeared.  Modern stories emerged.  Science fiction is the antithesis of Campbell's monomyth. Set the Future Free

102 Star Wars on Trial (2006)

103  Eight Charges The politics of Star Wars are anti-democratic and elitist. While claiming mythic significance, Star Wars portrays no admirable religious or ethical beliefs. Star Wars pretends to be science fiction, but is really fantasy. Women in Star Wars are portrayed as fundamentally weak. Star Wars has dumbed down the perception of science fiction in the popular imagination. Science fiction filmmaking has been reduced by Star Wars to poorly written special effects extravaganzas. The plot holes and logical gaps in Star Wars make it ill-suited for an intelligent viewer. Star Wars novels are poor subsitutes for real science fiction and are driving real SF off the shelves.


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