Presentation on theme: "What is Parkinson’s Disease?"— Presentation transcript:
0Toxic Metabolites of Dopamine and PD Marta Madzelan Xiao Yu WangZhou (Joey) tong Puja BosePHM Fall 2014Coordinator: Dr. Jeffrey HendersonInstructor: Dr. David Hampson
1What is Parkinson’s Disease? Progressive neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, primarily affecting voluntary, controlled movementIt is a result of the chronic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the ventral component of the pars compacta region in the substantia nigra (midbrain)As the neurons die, less dopamine is producedand transported to the striatum(co-ordinates movement).In Canada, estimated prevalence rate is100 to 200/100,000
2What causes PD? Etiology is unknown (idiopathic) Genetic factors (small number of cases)around 15% of individuals with PD have a first-degree relative who has the disease.Environmental factors (chronic exposure to pesticides)correlation between exposure to pesticide use and wood preservatives.strong negative correlation between cigarette smoking and the development of the disease.
3Symptoms of PD Motor Symptoms Non-motor Symptoms Resting Tremor RigiditySlowness of movementPostural InstabilityNon-motor SymptomsAutonomic dysfunctionNeuropsychiatric symptomsSleep disordersSensory abnormalities*The symptoms of Parkinson’s fluctuate throughout the course of the disease and intensify progressively over time.
4Diagnosis of PD Diagnosed through clinical assessment based on the symptoms described by the patient anda complete neurologic examination by the physician.Two of the four motor symptoms must be present tomake the diagnosis.No lab test that identifies the disease, but brainscans are sometimes used to rule out disordersthat could give rise to similar symptoms.
5Who is at risk for PD?Most often occurs after the age of 50 and is one of the most common movement disorders of the elderly.Occurs about 50% more in men than women.Head trauma, illness, or exposure to environmental toxins such as pesticidesA low % are at increased risk because of a family history (genetic factors)Parkinson’s can progress at a different rate for each person
6Pathology of Parkinsons Death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigraIn particular, the pars compacta regionNigrostriatal pathway is one of the four major dopamine pathwaysConnects the substantia nigra to the striatumIs necessary for movement80-90% of substantia nigra dopaminergic cells must die for symptoms to appearPresence of abnormal protein aggregates called Lewy Bodies
7Dopamine Major neurotransmitter involved in a number of pathways Metabolism of dopamine generates reactive oxygen speciesDefensive mechanisms against ROS are overwhelmed in Parkinson’s Disease
8Damage to Dopamine Cells D1 and D2 dopamine receptors signal through G-proteins to regulate transcriptionBoth familial and environmental factors may contributeAccumulation of aggregated proteins is a key causeMutations which increase ROS cause apoptosis and misfolding
9Lewy Bodies are collections of misfolded protein Still unclear whether Lewy Bodies are a disease causing agent, an indirect consequence, or a protective measure to reduce harm
10Treatments for Parkinson’s Disease •Currently there is no treatment for Parkinson’s Disease•Most “treatment” are meant to alleviate symptoms.•General treatment philosophy is to address for the lack of dopamine inside the brain
11Levodopa •A metabolic precursor of dopamine. •Able to cross blood-brain barrier, a tight junction that protect brain and spinal cord from general circulation.•Molecules such as Decarboxylase inhibitor are usually used in combination with Levodopa in order to prevent peripheral decarboxylation of levodopa. (eg Levodopa/Carbidopa)
12Levodopa •One of the most common drug used to alleviate symptoms. •Very effective in relieve symptoms like tremor and stiffness, but does not affect problems involve autonomic functions.•Possible side effects include dizziness, agitation and anxiety.
13Dopamine Agonist•A type of molecule that directly stimulate the receptors in nerves in the brain that normally would be stimulated by dopamine.•It behaves like dopamine but does not change into dopamine.•General properties for these molecules are: easy to cross blood-brain barrier and have high affinity to dopamine receptors in brain such as D2 receptors.•One example of Dopamine Agonist is Apomorphine.
14Dopamine Agonist•Less effective than Levodopa, but can help in reduce symptoms relate to motor function.•Can be used in combination with Levodopa in order to decrease the side effects from Levodopa.
15MAO-B inhibitorsEnzyme (monoamine oxidase B) in the brain that breaks down several chemicals in the brain including dopamineMAO-B levels increase as you ageIncreased levels of MAO-B contribute to cellular degeneration by producing H2O2 that are converted by iron to toxic O2 free radicalsMAO-B inhibitors inhibit the activity of MAO-B allowing sustained dopamine levels
16MAO-B Inhibitor Medications Selegiline and RasagalineUsually given in the early stages but can also be given in conjunction with other drugs such as levodopaStopping movements from getting worseCan also delay the time when patients need to start taking levodopaShould not be taken with antidepressants as it can raise blood pressure to dangerous levels
17Surgery Surgery may be considered when drugs fail to control symptoms NOT A CURE!Deep brain stimulation - uses electrical impulses to stimulate a target area in the brainPallidotomy - destruction a tiny area of the globus pallidus (tremor and stiffness)Thalamotomy - destruction of an area in the thalamus that controls some involuntary movementmedications are still taken after surgery but at lesser quantities
18SummaryParkinson’s is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, primarily affecting voluntary, controlled movementIt is a result of the chronic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (midbrain)Currently, no cure is available for Parkinson’s disease, all treatment is meant to alleviate symptoms.Levodopa is a metabolic precursor of dopamine, it can cross the blood brain barrier, which separate brain from general circulation, and can be converted into dopamine inside the brain.Dopamine agonist is a type of molecule that stimulate the receptor that normally would be stimulated by dopamine.MAO (monoamine oxidase) is an enzyme in the brain that breaks down several chemicals in the brain including dopamineMAO-B inhibitors inhibit monoamine oxidase B which allows elevated dopamine to remain in the brainParkinson results from death of over 80% of the dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigraThe Nigrostriatal pathway, which is responsible for movement, is disrupted during PD, causing severe motor impairmentDegradation of dopamine naturally causes production of reactive oxygen species, but mutations in -PD patients may cause defensive mechanisms to malfunction causing abnormal oxidative stress in neuronsMutations in alpha-synuclein cause protein misfolding, which in turn causes increased ROS and toxicityThese misfolded proteins aggregate into Lewy Bodies. The exact function of Lewy Bodies is unclear
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