Presentation on theme: "We are working on a contract with National Grid to undertake a first year of survey for wild blue lupines and Karner blue butterflies/Frosted Elfins under."— Presentation transcript:
1 We are working on a contract with National Grid to undertake a first year of survey for wild blue lupines and Karner blue butterflies/Frosted Elfins under National Grid’s new Habitat Conservation Plan…..nearly final and approved. Yea!!!Anyways, do you have any students in mind that might want to spend mid-May to mid-June, and perhaps longer, mapping lupines and conducting presence/absence butterfly surveys in the Queensbury, Saratoga, Albany Area? If they are from here originally and could live with family that would be great. They need to have a valid driver’s license. I am looking for two such students.
2 NYSDEC Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources: 42 paid internships available for SUNY-ESF Students!The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources has just added 16 more paid internships to the 26 already available for the 2012 season for SUNY-ESF students. The following 42 internship opportunities are now available for the spring/summer season: New internships are highlighted in gray. If you have already applied you may reapply for the new ones. No internships have yet been filled. Many internships now have detailed descriptions.Currently enrolled students can work for up to 20 weeks and up to 800 hours. Students must be enrolled in fall semester 2012 to be eligible. Pay rate is $10/hr for undergraduates and $15/hr for graduate students. If you are interested in applying for any of these positions, please send as a single document .pdf attachment to an to :a short cover letter that identifies the specific internship(s) you wish to be considered for (please identify position number) and outlines your qualifications and interest in eachincludes a resume with your contact information ( and phone).
3 IUCN “Redlist” exercise Review an outdated listing for an endangered species (to be announced at start of next class)Understand how the classification process works by working through a case study
4 Overview of the IUCN Red List Unit Cambridge, UK
5 (10,000 scientists & experts) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)Commissions(10,000 scientists & experts)IUCN Members80 States112 Government agencies>800NGOsSome background information about IUCN. The World Conservation Union is the world’s largest conservation organisation. Founded in 1948, its current membership includes:83 States (in the North Africa region this includes Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt)110 Government AgenciesMore than 800 Non-Government Organisations (including 12 in North Africa)North African NGO members:Algeria: Boumerdes Ecological Association (AEB); Algerian Ecological Movement (MEA).Morocco: Association Ribat Al Fath; Society for the Protection of Animals and Nature.Tunisia: Friends of the Birds Association; National Tunisian Association for Wildlife Protection (ANTPFS); Tunisian Association for the Protection of Nature and the Environment (ATPNE); Fédération Nationale des Associations des Chasseurs et des Associations de Chasse Specialisées (FNACACS); National Union of Tunisian Women.Egypt: Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe CEDARE; Arab Office for Youth and Employment; Tree Lovers Association.IUCN mission: to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.Our work is carried out through six Commissions:Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM) - Guiding the management of natural and modified ecosystems (400 members).Commission on Environmental, Economic, and Social Policy (CEESP) - Advising on economic and social factors that affect natural resources (500 members).Commission on Education and Communication (CEM) - Promoting sustainability through education and communication (600 members).Commission on Environmental Law (CEL) - Advancing environmental laws and its application (800 members)World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) - Advising and promoting terrestrial and marine reserves, parks and protected areas (1,300 members).Species Survival Commission (SSC) - Supporting species conservation and protecting endangered species (7,000 members).The IUCN secretariat supports the work of the IUCN Commissions and helps to implement the IUCN work programme throughout the world.IUCN Secretariat1,100 staff in 62 countries, led by IUCN’s Director General (Julia Marton-Lefevre)
6 IUCN Red List UnitManagement of the IUCN Red List (database, web site)Assessment reviewPetitions and enquiriesTraining workshopsAssessment workshopsOther projects and Red List toolsRed List IndexGlobal Species AssessmentsRegional assessment initiativesClimate change and extinction risk assessment
8 What are we trying to do?Identify and document those species most in need of conservation attention if the global extinction rates are to be reduced.Provide a global index to monitor the status of the world’s biodiversity.So, what are we trying to do? The IUCN Red List Unit has two main aims:To identify and document species that are most in need of conservation attention in order to reduce the global extinction rates. This is achieved through assessing species and publishing their status on the IUCN Red List.To provide a global index to monitor the changing status of the world’s biodiversity. It is not enough to just keep publishing assessments – by analysing the changes in status over time, and focusing only on genuine changes (rather than changes arising through, e.g., improved knowledge or taxonomic changes) we can see whether the world’s biodiversity is improving (hence our conservation efforts are working), or deteriorating (hence highlighting the need to improve our conservation efforts). This is the Red List Index which has been adopted by CBD.
9 The IUCN Red List Assessment: An estimate of extinction risk Illustration copyright Bob DivenWhat is the likelihood of a speciesBecoming extinct in the near future,given current knowledge about populationtrends, range, and recent, current orprojected threats?IUCN Red List assessment methodology has undergone several reviews since the 1960s. For 30 years, Red List assessments were rather subjective, relying on the opinions of species specialists. However, as the Red List became a more popular and important reference source for globally threatened species, IUCN recognised the need to make the assessments more objective and scientifically sound.Work on reviewing the criteria began in the early 1990s and by 1994 the first criteria-based categories were being used for global Red List assessments (Red List Categories & Criteria version 2.3). Over the next six years of using the criteria, assessors raised various issues and problems. With these issues in mind, the criteria were reviewed and the final version (version 3.1) was published in 2001.The Categories and Criteria are designed for application to all taxonomic groups (other than micro-organisms). The rules outlined in the booklet are therefore quite general in their nature. Since it would be impractical to review the criteria every time issues are raised about how to apply the criteria to different taxa, it was decided that a Standards Working Group be formed to write and regularly update a set of Guidelines to outline some of the concepts behind the criteria and explain in greater detail how they should be applied under different circumstances.The Guidelines are essential for anyone carrying out an assessment for the IUCN Red List. They are reviewed annually and are available to download from the SSC and the Red List web sites. Users should always check these sites before embarking on assessments to ensure they have the most recent version of the Guidelines.
10 IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria Version 3.1 (2001)Version 2.3 (1994)Also refer to:Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: version 7.0 (August 2008)Free download from the IUCN Species Survival Commission web site (www.iucn.org/themes/ssc) or the Red List web site (www.iucnredlist.org).IUCN Red List assessment methodology has undergone several reviews since the 1960s. For 30 years, Red List assessments were rather subjective, relying on the opinions of species specialists. However, as the Red List became a more popular and important reference source for globally threatened species, IUCN recognised the need to make the assessments more objective and scientifically sound.Work on reviewing the criteria began in the early 1990s and by 1994 the first criteria-based categories were being used for global Red List assessments (Red List Categories & Criteria version 2.3). Over the next six years of using the criteria, assessors raised various issues and problems. With these issues in mind, the criteria were reviewed and the final version (version 3.1) was published in 2001.The Categories and Criteria are designed for application to all taxonomic groups (other than micro-organisms). The rules outlined in the booklet are therefore quite general in their nature. Since it would be impractical to review the criteria every time issues are raised about how to apply the criteria to different taxa, it was decided that a Standards Working Group be formed to write and regularly update a set of Guidelines to outline some of the concepts behind the criteria and explain in greater detail how they should be applied under different circumstances.The Guidelines are essential for anyone carrying out an assessment for the IUCN Red List. They are reviewed annually and are available to download from the SSC and the Red List web sites. Users should always check these sites before embarking on assessments to ensure they have the most recent version of the Guidelines.
12 Marine biodiversity Polidoro et al. 6 groupes d’espèces marines ont été évalués (requins, mérous, coraux, oiseaux, mammifères, tortues).Les pourcentages d’espèces menacées pour chacun des groupes sont représentés en rouge sur ce graphique et sont particulièrement importants (surtout pour les coraux) d’autant que pour certains groupes comme les requins ou les mammifères le nombre d’espèces dans la Catégorie Données Insuffisantes est très importantPolidoro et al.
13 Freshwater biodiversity Darwall et al.Pour les espèces d’eau douce nous avons focalisé nos efforts sur 5 groupes (poissons, crabes, mollusques, libellules et plantes)Nous commençons à avoir des résultats assez détaillésSi l’on regarde les poissons, les pourcentages d’espèces menacées (en rouge) peuvent atteindre plus de 50% pour les espèces endémiques de la région Méditerranéenne ou de MadagascarNous sommes capables d’identifier les zones où les menaces sont les plus importantes (ex de l’Afrique australe et de l’Est)13
18 The IUCN Categories Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW) Least Concern (LC)Extinct in the Wild (EW)THREATENEDEndangered (EN)Critically Endangered (CR)Vulnerable (VU)Data Deficient (DD)Near Threatened (NT)Not Evaluated (NE)There are NINE IUCN Red List categories.
22 Solanum [Cyphomandra] betacea Data Deficient (DD)A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of itsrisk of extinction based on its distributionand/or population status.Tree TomatoSolanum [Cyphomandra] betaceaDefinitions in the User Guidelines:Data Deficient - A taxon is DD when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, if a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.Not Evaluated - A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.Not Evaluated (NE)A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has notyet been evaluated against the criteria
24 Nature of the Criteria A B C D E THREATENED CATEGORIES CRITERIA Critically Endangered (CR)Endangered (EN)Vulnerable (VU)APopulation reductionBRestricted geographic rangeQuantitative thresholdsCSmall population size & declineFive criteria are used, based on different aspects of extinction risk, to determine which threatened category applies to the taxon. The criteria are independent of each other (I.e., meeting the thresholds under criterion B does not mean that the rules for criterion E also applies to the taxon).Very small or restricted populationDEQuantitative analysis
25 Why use multiple criteria? Not all the criteria are appropriate to all taxa.All taxa being assessed must be evaluated against each criterion.Meeting any one of the criteria qualifies a taxon for listing at that level of threatAll criteria met at the highest level of threat should be listed.Although not all the criteria are appropriate for all taxa, when carrying out an assessment it is important to consider all five criteria against the available data. This is because although a taxon may immediately qualify for VU under criterion A, there may also be evidence that it actually qualifies for CR under another criterion – if the other criteria are not considered after “A”, then this higher listing will be missed.Taxa do not need to meet all 5 criteria to fall into a threatened category – one criterion is sufficient. However, if more than one criterion applies for one category, all the applicable criteria for that category must be given in the assessment.
26 Past, present or future population reduction Criterion APast, present or future population reductionTimePopulation Size
27 Criterion A Based on any of four criteria: A1: Population reduction in past and causes of decline now ceasedA2: Population reduction in past and causes of decline ongoingA3: Population reduction expected in futureA4: Population reduction in past AND future
28 Criterion BRestricted geographic range and fragmentation, continuing decline or extreme fluctuations
29 Criterion B Based on either of two sub-criteria: B1: Estimated extent of occurrenceAND / ORB2: Estimated area of occupancyAND at least TWO of a-c:a. Severely fragmented or few locationsb. Continuing declinec. Extreme fluctuationsCriterion B was designed to identify populations with restricted distributions that are also severely fragmented, undergoing a form of continuing decline, and/or exhibiting extreme fluctuations (in the present or near future). It is important to pay particular attention to criterion B, as it is the most commonly misused criterion.
30 Criterion B Subcriterion B1 Subcriterion B2 CR EN VU Extent of occurrence estimated to be:Subcriterion B2Area of occupancy estimated to be:< 10 km²CR< 100 km²< 500 km²< 5,000 km²EN< 2,000 km²VU< 20,000 km²
31 Criterion B AND at least TWO of a, b or c: CR EN VU a. Severely fragmented or # locations:b. Continuing decline in any of the following:EOOAOOArea, extent and/or quality of habitat# locations or subpopulations# mature individualsc. Extreme fluctuation in any of the following:EOOAOO# locations or subpopulations# mature individuals1CR 5ENVU 10
32 Small population size and continuing decline Criterion CSmall population size and continuing declineExtinct
33 Criterion C Based on small population size AND either C1 or C2: C1: Continuing decline in population size at a specified rateORC2: Continuing decline in population size at any, unspecified rate AND either C2a or C2b:C2a: (i) very small subpopulations, OR (ii) most mature individuals are in one subpopulationC2b: extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals
34 Criterion C Thresholds for criterion C CR EN VU Population size is estimated at:< 250 mature individualsCR< 2,500 mature individualsEN< 10,000 mature individualsVU
35 Criterion C Subcriterion C1 CR EN VU Estimated continuing decline of: 25% within 3 years or 1 generationCR 20% within 5 years or 2 generationsENVU 10% within 10 years or 3 generations
36 Criterion C Subcriterion C2 AND at least one of the following: CR EN Observed, projected or inferred continuing decline at any rateAND at least one of the following:C2a(i).All subpopulations have:C2a(ii).One subpopulation contains:C2b.There are extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals.CR< 50 mature individuals 90% of the mature individuals< 250 mature individuals 95% of the mature individualsENThe diagram is an attempt to make this criterion easier to understand (I’m not entirely sure it achieves this aim yet!)Criterion C was designed to identify taxa with small populations that are currently declining or may decline in the near future. For criterion C the small population threshold must be met as well as one of the two subcriteria that describe decline.Subcriterion C1 – first the population size threshold must be met. Then continuing decline in population size must be estimate at a particular rate (see the thresholds). If decline at a specific rate cannot be estimated but the population size threshold is met, then consider subcriterion C2.Subcriterion C2 – first the population size threshold must be met. Then there must be continuing decline in population size (at any rate). Then either the structure of the population must be restricted (either small subpopulations, or most of the total population being in one subpopulation), or extreme fluctuations in population size occur.100% of the mature individuals< 1,000 mature individualsVU
37 Very small or restricted population Criterion DVery small or restricted population
38 Criterion DCriterion D is split into D for the CR and EN categories; and D1 and D2 for the VU category.D. Total current population size estimated as:D1. Total current population size estimated as:NOTE: for the VU D2, there should be a plausible threat that is likely to rapidly affect the population.< 50 mature individualsCR< 250 mature individualsEND2. The population has a very restricted AOO (typically <20 km²) or is known from very few locations (typically ≤5).< 1,000 mature individualsVU
40 Critically Endangered Criterion EBased on quantitative analysis showing a probability of extinction in the wild is at least:50%Critically Endangered20%Endangered10%VulnerableWithin 10 years or 3 generationsWithin 20 years or 5 generationsWithin 100 yearsUp to a maximum of 100 years in the future