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HELP! I Need to Learn IPv6! or 60 IPv6 Slides in 60 minutes! Rick Graziani Cabrillo College

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Presentation on theme: "HELP! I Need to Learn IPv6! or 60 IPv6 Slides in 60 minutes! Rick Graziani Cabrillo College"— Presentation transcript:

1 HELP! I Need to Learn IPv6! or 60 IPv6 Slides in 60 minutes! Rick Graziani Cabrillo College

2 © HELP! I Need to Learn IPv6! Why IPv6… in three slides or less What about IPv5 and NAT? IPv6 Address Representation IPv6 Global Unicast Address Link-local Unicast SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration) DHCPv6 (Stateless vs Stateful) DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation – IPv6 for the home

3 © For more information… IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 IPv6 Fundamentals LiveLessons: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 Access to all my presentations on my web site: IPv6

4 Why IPv6… in three slides or less.

5 © We are running out of IPv4 address space. Monday, January 31, 2011 IANA allocated the last /8 IPv4 address blocks to the RIRs. RIR’s have very few, if any IPv4 address left. Many ISPs are severely limited and some have already run out. Actual or projected dates as of November 2014 Source: Note: APNIC and RIPE are not completely out of addresses but they are very restrictive on allocation of addresses. IANA is out… RIRs and ISPs are running out.

6 © World Internet Statistics The regions with the largest populations have the lowest percentages of people connected to the Internet Graphic from Internet World Stats,

7 © Benefits of IPv6 Larger address space Stateless autoconfiguration End-to-end reachability without private addresses and NAT The “killer application” for the Internet is the Internet itself. Graphic from IPv6 Forum,

8 What about IPv5 and NAT, and when is the big date to switch to IPv6?

9 © What About IPv5? In the late 1970s, a family of experimental protocols was developed intended to provide quality of service (QoS) for real- time multimedia applications such video and voice. Known as Internet Stream Protocol (ST) and later ST2 – (RFC 1190 and RFC 1819). Although it was never known as IPv5, when encapsulated in IP, ST uses IP Protocol version 5. RFC = IPv4 5 = ST2 6 = IPv6

10 © No More NAT as We Know It NAT has been used to help “hide” customers and works for many client- initiated applications. However, NAT also creates some issues, like peer-to-peer networking and accessing our “hidden” systems from other networks. Using NAT to “hide” IPv6 networks has been the source of some debate. IETF continues to state that NAT is not a security feature. Internet Public IPv4 ISP Network Public IPv4 NAT Customer Network /24 (RFC 1918) X

11 © Tunneling – Various protocols to encapsulate IPv6 packets inside IPv4 packets. NAT64 – Translating between IPv4 and IPv6. Native IPv6 – All IPv6 (our focus and the goal of every organization). Transitioning to IPv6

12 © Transitioning to IPv6? IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. Dual-stack – Device running both IPv4 and IPv6. Enterprises and ISPs have to support both protocols, which is a reason to eventually go to only IPv6. IPv4IPv6

13 Hex in the City and IPv6 Address Representation

14 © Let’s Begin with the IPv6 Header Understanding IPv6 begins with the IPv6 header. IPv6 takes advantage of 64-bit CPUs. Several differences between IPv4 and IPv6 headers. IPv4 IPv6 64-bit memory word Simpler IPv6 header. Fixed 40 byte IPv6 header. We will focus on the addresses… Similar fields

15 © The Beauty of Hexadecimal: 4 bits = 1 hex digit Dec Hex 8 9 A B C D E F Dec Hex Binary Binary

16 © IPv6 Address Notation IPv6 addresses are 128-bit addresses represented in: Hexadecimal: 1 hex digit = 4 bits Eight 16-bit segments or “hextets” (not a formal term) between 0000 and FFFF Separated by colons Reading and subnetting IPv6 is easier than IPv4…. Really! 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000: bits 1 16 bits 2 16 bits 3 16 bits 4 16 bits 5 16 bits 6 16 bits 7 16 bits 8

17 © 128-bit Address: How Many Is That? 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000: bits

18 © Number of IPv6 Addresses IPv4 addresses: 4.3 billion IPv6 addresses: 340 undecillion Number name Scientific Notation Number of zeros 1 Thousand10 3 1,000 1 Million10 6 1,000,000 1 Billion10 9 1,000,000,000 1 Trillion ,000,000,000,000 1 Quadrillion ,000,000,000,000,000 1 Quintillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000 1 Sextillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1 Septillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1 Octillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1 Nonillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1 Decillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1 Undecillion ,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IPv4 4.3 billion IPv6 340 undecillion 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456

19 © Two Rules for Compressing IPv6 Addresses Rule 1: Omitting Leading 0s Two rules for reducing the size of written IPv6 addresses. First rule: Leading zeroes in any 16-bit segment do not have to be written : 0DB8 : 0001 : 1000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0ef0 : bc : DB8 : 1 : 1000 : 0 : 0 : ef0 : bc : 0DB8 : 010d : 000a : 00dd : c000 : e000 : : DB8 : 10d : a : dd : c000 : e000 : : 0DB8 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : : DB8 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 500

20 © Two Rules for Compressing IPv6 Addresses Rule 1: Omitting Leading 0s Only leading 0s can be excluded, trailing 0s must be included. Or leads to ambiguity… 2001 : 0DB8 : ab : 1234 : 5678: 9abcd: ef12: : 0DB8 : 00ab : 1234 : 5678: 9abcd: ef12: : 0DB8 : ab00 : 1234 : 5678: 9abcd: ef12: : 0DB8 : 0ab0 : 1234 : 5678: 9abcd: ef12: 3456 ?

21 © Two Rules for Compressing IPv6 Addresses Rule 2: Double Colon :: The second rule can reduce this address even further: Second rule: Any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments consisting of all zeroes can be represented with a double colon (::) : 0DB8 : 1000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : : DB8 : 1000 : : 1 Second ruleFirst rule

22 © Only a single contiguous string of all-zero segments can be represented with a double colon. Although the rule states that both of these are correct… 2001 : DB8 : 0000 : 0000 : 1234 : 0000 : 0000 : : DB8 :: 1234 : 0 : 0 : : DB8 : 0 : 0 : 1234 :: 5678 or Rule 2: Double Colon :: Choices Maximum reduction of the address is known as the “compressed” format. … RFC 5952 states that the longest string of zeroes must be replaced with the :: and if they are equal then the first string of 0’s should use the :: representation. RFC 5952

23 © Using the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address can create ambiguity because of the ambiguity in the number of 0s. 2001:DB8::1234:: :DB8:0000:0000:0000:1234:0000: :DB8:0000:0000:1234:0000:0000: :DB8:0000:1234:0000:0000:0000:5678 Rule 2: Double Colon :: Only Once

24 IPv6 Global Unicast Address Exactly the same as a Public IPv4 Address…. only different.

25 © IPv6 Address Types IPv6 Addresses FF00::/8FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 ::/128::1/ ::/3FE80::/10FC00::/7::/80 Unicast Multicast Anycast Assigned Solicited Node Global Unicast Link-Local Loopback Unspecified Unique Local Embedded IPv4 IPv6 does not have a “broadcast” address.

26 © IPv6 Source and Destination Addresses IPv6 Source – Always a unicast (link-local or GUA) IPv6 Destination – Unicast, multicast, or anycast. IPv4 IPv6

27 © Global Unicast Address Global Unicast Address (GUA) 2000::/3 (First hextet: 2000::/3 to 3FFF::/3) Globally unique and routable Similar to public IPv4 addresses 2001:DB8::/32 - RFC 2839 and RFC 6890 reserves this range of addresses for documentation These are the addresses we will be referring to the most. IPv6 Internet

28 © Global Unicast Address Range Interface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing Prefix : : IANA’s allocation of IPv6 address space in 1/8 th sections Range: 2000: 3FFF: Global Unicast Address (GUA) 2000::/3 Range 2000::/64 thru 3fff:fff:fff:fff::/64 1/8 th of IPv6 address space First hextet

29 © Global Unicast Address Range Except under very specific circumstances, all end users will have a global unicast address. Note: A host (an interface) can potentially have multiple IPv6 addresses on the same or different networks. Terminology: Prefix equivalent to the network address of an IPv4 address Prefix length equivalent to subnet mask in IPv4 Interface ID equivalent to host portion of an IPv4 address Interface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing Prefix 001 Range: 2000::/64 thru 3fff:fff:fff:fff::/64

30 © Parts of a Global Unicast Address 64-bit Interface ID = 18 quintillion (18,446,744,073,709,551,616) devices/subnet 16-bit Subnet ID (initially recommended) = 65,536 subnets IPv4 Unicast Address 32 bits Network portionHost portion Subnet portion /? IPv6 Global Unicast Address 128 bits Global Routing Prefix Interface ID 16-bit Subnet ID /64 /48

31 © /64 Global Unicast Address and the Rule Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix 2001 : 0DB8 : CAFE : 0001 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : = 4 (/64) : :0DB8:CAFE:0001:0000:0000:0000:0100/ :DB8:CAFE:1::100/64 16 bits 314 /48/64

32 © Subnetting IPv6 Can you count in hex? Just increment by 1 in Hexadecimal: 2001:0DB8:CAFE:0000::/ :0DB8:CAFE:0001::/ :0DB8:CAFE:0002::/ :0DB8:CAFE:0009::/ :0DB8:CAFE:000A::/64 Valid abbreviation is to remove the leading 0s: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/ Rule

33 © 2001:DB8:CAFE:3::/ :DB8:CAFE:1::/ :DB8:CAFE:2::/64 G0/0 :1 G0/1 :1 S0/0/0 :100 Static GUA Configuration R1 A B R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:cafe:1::1/64 R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:cafe:2::1/64 R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:cafe:3::1/64 R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit I love the rule and subnetting IPv6!

34 Link-local Unicast You see it all of the time. You just never knew what it was.

35 © IPv6 Address Types IPv6 Addresses FF00::/8FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 ::/128::1/ ::/3FE80::/10FC00::/7::/80 Unicast Multicast Anycast Assigned Solicited Node Global Unicast Link-Local Loopback Unspecified Unique Local Embedded IPv4 IPv6 does not have a “broadcast” address.

36 © Link-Local Unicast Address IPv6 Source – Always a unicast IPv6 Destination – Unicast, multicast, or anycast. Unicast, including a link-local address IPv4 IPv6

37 © Used to communicate with other devices on the link. Are NOT routable off the link (network). Only have to be unique on the link. Not included in the IPv6 routing table. An IPv6 device must have at least a link-local address. Link-Local Communications Link-Local Unicast Address

38 © Link-Local Unicast Range Link – Network segment Link-local means, local to that link or network. Remaining 54 bits 64-bit Interface ID xx xxxx : : Range: FE80: FEBF: Link-local Unicast First 10 bits First hextet

39 © Link-Local Unicast Address Link-local addresses are created Automatically : FE80 (usually) – First 10 bits Interface ID EUI-64 (Cisco routers) Random 64 bits (many host operating systems) Static (manual) configuration – Common practice for routers. Remaining 54 bits 64-bit Interface ID xx xxxx FE80::Interface ID First 10 bits

40 © Modified EUI-64 Format (Extended Unique Identifier–64) FC994775C3E0 OUI (24 bits)Device Identifier (24 bits) FC994775C3E0FFFE C3E0FFFE FC U/L bit flipped FEFE994775C3E0FFFE Insert FF-FE

41 © R1 G0/0 G0/1 S0/0/0 R1# show interface gigabitethernet 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc c3e0 (bia fc c3e0) R1#show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1 GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E1 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::1 Serial0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:CAFE:3::1 R1# EUI-64 Serial interfaces will use a MAC address of an Ethernet interface. FF:FE = EUI-64 (most likely) Wait! Two Link-locals are the same! Verifying the Router’s Link-Local Address Link-local addresses only have to be unique on the link. Mystery © Copyright sato00

42 © PC> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix : Link-local IPv6 Address.... : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1 IPv4 Address : Subnet Mask : Default Gateway : Many operating systems will use a random 64-bit Interface IDs for GUA and Link- Local IPv6 Addresses. People Icon: Occupations set 5 © Copyright Fredy Sujono Verifying the PC’s Link-Local Address EUI-64 or random 64-bit value

43 © I will use your link- local as my default gateway, Used as a source IPv6 address before a device gets one dynamically (SLAAC and DHCPv6). Router’s link-local address is used by devices as the default gateway. Routers exchange routing messages. Router use the link-local address as the next-hop address in the routing table: via link-local address. An Important Role in IPv6 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation From: Link-local or unspecified address To: Multicast ICMPv6 Router Advertisement From: Link-local To: Multicast Routing Protocol Messaging From: Link-local To: Multicast

44 © R1# ping fe80::2 Output Interface: ser 0/0/0 % Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1) Output Interface: serial0/0/0 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs: !!!!! Must include exit-interface G0/0 FE80::1 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::/64 Ser 0/0/0 :1 Ser 0/0/0 :2 R2R1 FE80::1 FE80::2 2001:0DB8:ACAD:1::/64 FE80::2 ? Pinging a Link-Local Address

45 SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration) No DHCP Required

46 © ICMPv6 Neighbor Discover Protocol Router Solicitation Message Router Advertisement Message Used with dynamic address allocation Neighbor Solicitation Message Neighbor Advertisement Message Used with address resolution (IPv4 ARP) Redirect Message Similar to ICMPv4 redirect message Router-to-Device messaging Router-Device Messaging Device-Device Messaging ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery defines 5 different packet types: See these processes with: R1# debug ipv6 nd

47 © Ethernet ARP Request/Reply ICMPv6: Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement IPv4: ARP over Ethernet PC1 PC2 ARP Request Neighbor Advertisement Neighbor Solicitation 1 1 ARP Reply 2 2 Know IPv4, what is the MAC? My IPv4! Here is the MAC? Know IPv6, what is the MAC? My IPv6! Here is the MAC? ARP Request: Broadcast NS: MulticastNS: Solicited Node Multicast Ethernet IPv6 Header IPv6: ICMPv6 over IPv6 over Ethernet Address Resolution: IPv4 and IPv6 ARP Cache Neighbor Cache

48 © Router Solicitation & Router Advertisement Messages Router Solicitation Message Router Advertisement Message Used with dynamic address allocation Neighbor Solicitation Message Neighbor Advertisement Message Used with address resolution (IPv4 ARP) Redirect Message Similar to ICMPv4 redirect message Router-to-Device messaging Router-Device Messaging Device-Device Messaging ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery defines 5 different packet types:

49 © Dynamic IPv6 Address Allocation Global Unicast Manual Dynamic Static IPv6 unnumbered Static + EUI 64 SLAAC DHCPv6 SLAAC + DHCPv6 Similar to IPv4 unnumbered StatelessStateful DHCPv6-PD

50 © Dynamic Address Allocation in IPv4 DHCPv4 Server I need IPv4 addressing information. Here is everything you need.

51 © Dynamic Address Allocation in IPv6 DHCPv6 Server ICMPv6 Router Advertisement ICMPv6 Router Solicitation To all IPv6 routers: I need IPv6 address information. To all IPv6 devices: Let me tell you how to do this … To all IPv6 devices: Let me tell you how to do this … 1. SLAAC 2. SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6 3. Stateful DHCPv6 SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration ) I might not be needed. Router Solicitations Router Advertisements

52 © Router Advertisement: 3 Options DHCPv6 Server RA Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Option 1: SLAAC – No DHCPv6 (Default on Cisco routers) “I’m everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)” Option 2: SLAAC + Stateless DHCPv6 for DNS address “Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.” (DNS can be in RA) Option 3: All addressing except default gateway use DHCPv6 “I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.” DHCPv6 Option 1 and 2: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 Server does not maintain state of addresses Option 3: Stateful Address Configuration Address received from DHCPv6 Server

53 © Obtaining an IPv6 Address Automatically

54 © Note: Domain name and DNS server list may be included if router (and end system) support RFC 6106 IPv6 RA Options for DNS Configuration. SLAAC Option 1 – RA Message To: FF02::1 (All-IPv6 devices) From: FE80::1 (Link-local address) Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:: Prefix-length: /64 RA 1 1 MAC: D2-8C-E0-4C Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:: Prefix-length: /64 Default Gateway: FE80::1 Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1: + Interface ID 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value 2 2 DHCPv6 Server 3 3 SLAAC: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration

55 © SLAAC: Interface ID Global Routing Prefix 64-bit Interface ID 16-bit Subnet ID /64 /48 EUI-64 ProcessRandomly Generated Number (Privacy Extension) SLAAC DHCPv6 Server Default OS behavior can be changed. Known instead of unknown © Copyright DOC RABE MediaMan in paper bag on head © Copyright binik

56 © Note: Domain name and DNS server list may be included if router (and end system) support RFC 6106 IPv6 RA Options for DNS Configuration. SLAAC Option 1 – RA Message To: FF02::1 (All-IPv6 devices) From: FE80::1 (Link-local address) Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:: Prefix-length: /64 RA 1 1 MAC: D2-8C-E0-4C Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:: Prefix-length: /64 Default Gateway: FE80::1 Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1: + Interface ID 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value 2 2 DHCPv6 Server 3 3 SLAAC: EUI-64 Option

57 © Modified EUI-64 Format (Extended Unique Identifier–64) 0019D28CE04C OUI (24 bits)Device Identifier (24 bits) 0019D28CE04CFFFE 19D28CE04CFFFE U/L bit flipped D28CE04CFFFE Insert FF-FE

58 © PC> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: IPv6 Address : 2001:db8:cafe:1:0219:d2ff:fe8c:e04c Link-local IPv6 Address.. : fe80::0219:d2ff:fe8c:e04c Default Gateway..... : fe80::1 Router Advertisement EUI-64 A 64-bit Interface ID and the EUI-64 process accommodates: The IEEE specification for a 64-bit MAC address 64-bit boundary processing Verifying SLAAC on the PC Using EUI-64 Why. The Dude looking at the red question mark © Copyright jojje11

59 © SLAAC: Random 64-bit Interface ID Global Routing Prefix 64-bit Interface ID 16-bit Subnet ID /64 /48 EUI-64 ProcessRandomly Generated Number (Privacy Extension) SLAAC DHCPv6 Server Known instead of unknown © Copyright DOC RABE MediaMan in paper bag on head © Copyright binik

60 © PC-Windows7> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: IPv6 Address : 2001:db8:cafe:1:50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1 Link-local IPv6 Address.. : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1 Default Gateway..... : fe80::1 Router Advertisement EUI-64 Verifying SLAAC on the PC Using Privacy Extension No FF-FE

61 © Global Unicast :db8:cafe:1:0219:d2ff:fe8c:e04c Link-local - fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1 Neighbor Advertisement? Neighbor Solicitation Ensuring Unique Unicast Addresses Not received = unique address Received = duplicate address SLAAC is stateless, no entity (DHCPv6 server) maintaining a state address- to-device mappings. How can we guarantee the address is unique? Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) Once required for all unicast addresses (static or dynamic), RFC was updated that DAD is only recommended. /64 Interface IDs!

62 DHCPv6 (Stateless vs Stateful) For those who want it.

63 © DHCPv6 Global Unicast Manual Dynamic Static IPv6 unnumbered Static + EUI 64 SLAAC DHCPv6 SLAAC + DHCPv6 Similar to IPv4 unnumbered StatelessStateful DHCPv6-PD

64 © RA Message DHCPv6 Server RA Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Option 1: SLAAC – No DHCPv6 (Default on Cisco routers) “I’m everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)” Option 2: SLAAC + Stateless DHCPv6 for DNS address “Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.” (DNS can be in RA) Option 3: All addressing except default gateway use DHCPv6 “I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.” DHCPv6 Option 1 and 2: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 Server does not maintain state of addresses Option 3: Stateful Address Configuration Address received from DHCPv6 Server

65 © DHCPv6 I created my own address (Stateless), and have the default gateway, but I need a DNS address… IPv6 Router & DHCPv6 Server SOLICIT To all DHCPv6 Servers 3 ADVERTISE Unicast INFORMATION REQUEST To all DHCPv6 Servers REPLY Unicast Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Option 2: Stateless DHCPv6 O Flag = 1, M Flag = 0 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation Note: Domain name and DNS server list may be included if router (and end system) support RFC 6106 IPv6 RA Options for DNS Configuration.

66 © RA Message: Stateless DHCPv6 To: FF02::1 (All-IPv6 devices) From: FE80::1 (Link-local address) Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:: Prefix-length: /64 Other Configuration Flag: 1 RA 1 1 MAC: D2-8C-E0-4C Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:: Prefix-length: /64 Default Gateway: FE80::1 Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1: + Interface ID 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value 2 2 Stateless DHCPv6 Server 3 3 SLAAC for Addressing & DNS for Other Information 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:6909:cb1c:36a0:a595 DHCPv6 For DNS DNS: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::99 Domain name: cafe.com

67 © RA Message DHCPv6 Server RA Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Option 1: SLAAC – No DHCPv6 (Default on Cisco routers) “I’m everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)” Option 2: SLAAC + Stateless DHCPv6 for DNS address “Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.” (DNS can be in RA) Option 3: All addressing except default gateway use DHCPv6 “I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.” DHCPv6 Option 1 and 2: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 Server does not maintain state of addresses Option 3: Stateful Address Configuration Address received from DHCPv6 Server

68 © DHCPv6 I’m only using the default gateway address from the RA. I need to contact a stateful DHCPv6 server for all my addressing. IPv6 Router & DHCPv6 Server SOLICIT To all DHCPv6 Servers 3 ADVERTISE Unicast REQUEST To all DHCPv6 Servers REPLY Unicast Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Option 3: Stateful DHCPv6 O Flag = 0, M Flag = 1 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation

69 © RA Message: Stateful DHCPv6 To: FF02::1 (All-IPv6 devices) From: FE80::1 (Link-local address) Prefix: 2001:DB8:CAFE:2:: Prefix-length: /64 Managed Configuration Flag: 1 RA 1 1 Default Gateway: FE80::1 Global Unicast Address: DHCPv6 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::/ Stateful DHCPv6 Server Stateful DHCPv6 DHCPv6 I need to get all my addressing from DHCPv6, HOWEVER I will use the router as my default gateway. 2001:DB8:CAFE:1:6909:cb1c:36a0:a595 DNS: 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::99 Domain name: cafe.com

70 DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation Process IPv6 for the home

71 © DHCPv4 and Private Addresses for the Home ISP only has to deliver a public IPv4 address for Home router interface. DHCPv4 and RFC 1918 private address space is used for home network. NAT is used for translation – but has its drawbacks! No NAT between private-public IPv6 (always in debate) ISP HOME Public IPv4 Address for the interface G0/ / / /16 G0/0 Private IPv4 Address NAT DHCPv4

72 © HOME Router’s ISP Facing Interface First, HOME’s ISP facing interface needs an IPv6 address. Similar to any IPv6 client it may dynamically get an address using: SLAAC - Using prefix in RA Stateless DHCPv6 – SLAAC but DHCPv6 for DNS address Stateful DHCPv6 - Like DHCPv4 What about the address for the HOME LAN? ISP-DR HOME-RR G0/1 G0/0 Delegating Router (DR) Requesting Router (RR) IPv6 Address for the interface: SLAAC DHCPv6 (Stateful or Stateless) ? Complete IPv6 Reachability

73 © DHCPv6 Step 3 ISP-DR HOME-RR G0/1 G0/0 Delegating Router (DR) Requesting Router (RR) DHCPv6-PD REQUEST DHCPv6-PD REPLY RA with /64 prefix 2001:DB8:CAFE:9:: (DNS, domain name) RA with /64 prefix 2001:DB8:CAFE:9:: (DNS, domain name) 3 3 Here is a separate IPv6 prefix for you to give out to your LAN. 2001:DB8:CAFE:9:: (DNS, domain name) 2001:DB8:CAFE:9:: + Interface ID (EUI-64 or Random)

74 © For more information… IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 IPv6 Fundamentals LiveLessons: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 Access to all my presentations on my web site:

75 © Labs….


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