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Biodiesel A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project.

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Presentation on theme: "Biodiesel A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biodiesel A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

2 Outline What is biodiesel? What can be used to make biodiesel? How is biodiesel manufactured? How is biodiesel used? What are the benefits of biodiesel? What are the effects of biodiesel on the environment and human health? How will using biodiesel affect my engine warranty? What about cold weather operation? How does biodiesel perform in engines? Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

3 What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a renewable, alternative fuel for use in compression-ignition (diesel) engines Biodiesel is a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D6751 Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

4 Biodiesel IS A commercially-manufactured fuel that meets specific, recognized quality standards IS NOT Raw vegetable oil Filtered grease or cooking oil Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project This fuel was manufactured in a BQ 9000 facility - it meets ASTM D6751 quality standards! This fuel was made in Bob’s shed – it meets Bob’s quality (?) standards! Do you trust Bob???

5 ASTM D6751 Biodiesel Standard Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

6 What can be used to make Biodiesel? Oil Seeds – Soybeans – Canola – Cottonseed – Sunflowers Animal Fats – Beef tallow – Pork lard Recycled cooking oils/greases Algae Other Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

7 How is Biodiesel Manufactured? Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project Feedstock Vegetable oils Animal fats Waste fats/oils Crude Biodiesel Refining Crude Glycerin Biodiesel Methanol Plus Catalyst Transesterification Methanol Recovery Glycerin Refining 100 – lbs. 10 – lbs. 100 – lbs.

8 How is Biodiesel Used? Pure biodiesel (B100) is normally “blended” with petroleum diesel for use in engines. Biodiesel blends are designated by the % biodiesel they contain: – B5 5% biodiesel 95% petroleum diesel – B20 (most common blend) 20% biodiesel 80% petroleum diesel – Can be used in most CI engines with no modifications Biodiesel blends are designated according to the % of biodiesel Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

9 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of D2, B20 and B100 1 FuelSpecific gravityLbs/galBTU/lbBTU/gal D ,764 (100%)137,617 (100%) B ,917 (-4.3%)135,994 (-1.2%) B ,111 (-13.4%)126,433 (-8.1%) Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project 1 Values from the NREL Fuels Database

10 What are the Benefits of Biodiesel??? Biodiesel: Is renewable Is domestically-produced Is non-toxic and biodegradable Blends up to B20 require no (or minor) vehicle modifications Increases lubricity of fuel Reduces global warming gasses Reduces tailpipe emissions Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

11 What are the Effects of Biodiesel on the Environment and Human Health? Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project Average Emissions Reduction with Biodiesel Source: US Environmental Protection Agency Biodiesel Reduces: – Hydrocarbons Human Carcinogen – Particulates Human Carcinogen – Carbon Monoxide Human Toxin – CO 2 (lifecycle basis) Greenhouse gas – Effect on NO X emissions is unclear Greenhouse gas Contributes to smog Health hazard

12 B20 Reduces Harmful Emissions Relative to Petroleum Diesel Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project Source: US DOE, 2008

13 B20 Reduces Lifecycle CO 2 Emissions by 15% Relative to Petroleum Diesel Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

14 How will using Biodiesel Affect My Engine Warranty? Engine and vehicle manufacturers warranty materials and workmanship only – not fuels. Any engine damage due to fuel quality (either diesel or biodiesel) is not covered by the manufacturer’s warranty. – Only use biodiesel from a BQ-9000 certified source. Federal law prohibits voiding an engine warranty due to the use of biodiesel; UNLESS the biodiesel is proven to be the cause of failure. Most manufacturers make specific recommendations about the use of specific biodiesel blends. Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

15 Does My Engine Manufacturer Approve the Use of Biodiesel? These (and other) manufacturers approve the use of various biodiesel blends in some or all of their engines. – Must meet ASTM D6571 quality standard Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

16 What about Cold Weather Operation? Biodiesel gels at higher temperatures than diesel – Gelling temperature increases with: Higher blends (B20 vs. B5) Animal-based feedstock – Gelling temperature can be decreased with commercial “pour point depressants” One manufacturer claims to lower gelling temperature to -40 ⁰F for B20. Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

17 UA Biodiesel Test Results Kubota RTV900 Utility Vehicles John Deere 3203 Compact Utility Tractor John Deere PowerTech M 4.5 L irrigation engine Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

18 Kubota RTV900 Diesel Utility Vehicle

19 Fuel Efficiency – Diesel vs. B20 Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project In-Use Tests Lab Tests

20 Power Output – Diesel vs. B20 Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

21 John Deere 3203 Compact Utility Tractor Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

22 John Deere 3203 Compact Utility Tractor Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

23 PowerTech M Irrigation Engine Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

24 Rated Engine Speed (2400 rpm) Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

25 Pumping Speed (1800 RPM) Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

26 Summary - How Does Biodiesel Affect Engine Performance? Blends of up to B20 – No appreciable differences in: Power ( ~ 1-2%) Torque ( ~ 1-2%) Fuel efficiency ( ~ 1-2%) – No effect on: Engine life Engine wear – Decrease in: CO Hydrocarbons Particulate matter – Effect on NO X varies Mobile Biodiesel Demonstration Unit Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project

27 SourceEngine TypeFuel TypePowerTorque Hansen, Gratton, & Yuan (2006) 7.3 L International T 444E HT, V-8 D20% loss BE59.5% loss B1009.1% loss E103.0% loss B20.5% loss Schumacher, Clark, Lyons, & Marshall (2001) Series 60 DDC D Hp-hr B Hp-hr B Hp-hr B20/A Hp-hr Power and Torque Summary (Hudson, 2010)

28 Fuel Efficiency Summary (Hudson, 2010) Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project SourceEngine TypeFuel TypeFuel Efficiency Canakci & Van Gerpen (2003) John Deere 4247T, four cylinder, direct injection D g/kWh B20 soybean g/kWh B20 yellow grease g/kWh B100 soybean g/kWh B100 yellow grease g/kWh Hardin, Brown, Roller, Johnson, & Wardlow (2007) John Deere 3203, Yanmar engine, three cylinder D kg/kWh B kg/kWh B kg/kWh Li, McLaughlin, Patterson, & Burtt (2006) Instrumented research tractor D27.91 MJ/L B20 soybean7.78 MJ/L B50 soybean7.58 MJ/L B100 soybean7.40 MJ/L Proc, Barnitt, Hayes, Ratcliff, & McCormick (2006) Orion V transit buses D24.41 mpg B mpg

29 Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project SourceEngine TypeFuel TypeNO x Unit Canakci & Van Gerpen (2003) John Deere 4276T, four cylinder, direct injection D2≈18.8g/kw-hr B20 soybean≈19.0g/kw-hr B20 yellow grease≈18.8g/kw-hr B100 soybean≈21.0g/kw-hr B100 yellow grease≈20.8g/kw-hr Hansen, Gratton, & Yuan (2006) 7.3L International T 444E HT, eight cylinder, direct injection D28.77g/kw-hr B2 soybean8.92g/kw-hr B100 soybean9.82g/kw-hr Li, McLaughlin, Patterson, & Burtt (2006) Instrumented research tractor D2185g/ha B20 soybean182g/ha B50 soybean197g/ha B100 soybean209g/ha Schumacher, Clark, Lyons, & Marshall (2001) 1992 Cummins L10E, six cylinder, direct injection D25.01g/HP-hr B205.17g/HP-hr Schumacher, Marshall, Krahl, Wetherell, & Grabowski (2001) 1991 DDC Series 60, six cylinder D23.413g/kW-hr B g/kW-hr B g/kW-hr B g/kW-hr B g/kW-hr Tat & Van Gerpen (2003) John Deere 4045TF, four cylinder, direct injection D2≈8.5g/kw-hr B100 soybean≈9.6g/kw-hr B100 yellow grease≈8.6g/kw-hr NO X Emissions Summary (Hudson, 2010)

30 Overview of Lab Activity Compare D2 and B20 in John Deere 3203 Compact Utility Tractor Performance measures – Power (HP) – Torque (lb-ft) – Fuel efficiency sfc (lbs/hph) Thermal efficiency (%) – NO X emissions (ppm) Data Collection Sheet Safety Arkansas Biodiesel Research, Demonstration and Education Project


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