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THEME The central idea or universal message implicitly stated in a piece of literature. It is the author’s assertion of what is true about the world. What.

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Presentation on theme: "THEME The central idea or universal message implicitly stated in a piece of literature. It is the author’s assertion of what is true about the world. What."— Presentation transcript:

1 THEME The central idea or universal message implicitly stated in a piece of literature. It is the author’s assertion of what is true about the world. What the author is trying to show about the world, people, or society. Ex: A theme of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is that romantic love can be stronger than the love of one’s family.

2 GENRE A category or type of literature based on its style, form, and content. (novel, poetry, short story, etc.) Ex: The genre of The Chocolate War is novel.

3 METAPHOR A metaphor is a figure of speech that expresses an idea through direct comparison with another object. Metaphor is the general term for a comparison made between two elements. For example, a simile is a type of metaphor, much like sarcasm is a type of irony. Personification, analogies, similes are all types of metaphors. Ex: After standing outside in the cold for hours, Carrie’s cheeks were two red apples.

4 IMPLIED METAPHOR A type of metaphor that compares two unlike things, but it does so without mentioning one of them. Instead, it implies the comparison by using a word or phrase that describes the unmentioned term and makes the comparison in that way.metaphor Angrily Sonia barked commands at her child. (Compares Sonia to a dog) Andy’s wife asked him to fetch their dinner. (Compares Andy to a dog) Tony tucked his tail and ran. (Compares Tony to a scared dog) Beth was drowning in love. (Compares Beth to someone drowning and compares love to water) Jennifer purred over the lavish present. (Compares Mary to a cat) The Porsche crouched before the race, growling in anticipation. (Compares the Porsche to a big cat) Alex was chomping at the bit to have his turn. (Compares Alex to a horse) Harry squawked when the teacher ordered him to detention. (Compares Harry to a bird)

5 SIMILE Figure of speech comparing two unlike things, using the words “like” or “as.” Ex: Receiving an F on my test was like getting the death sentence from a jury.

6 HYPERBOLE Figure of speech in which the truth is exaggerated for emphasis or humor. Ex: Tim said he was so hungry he could eat an entire cow.

7 PERSONIFICATION A figure of speech in which something non- human is given human characteristics. Ex: When the extremely obese man sat on the old chair, it creaked in pain.

8 TONE The narrator’s attitude toward the subject or audience. Ex: Sarcastic, sincere, empathetic, etc. Ex: Nostalgic tone: “I remember when you could find bears in every state.” Ex: Unemotional tone: “The little bird was only a baby, but nature is unsentimental.” Ex: Sarcastic tone: “The men so brilliantly charged straight into enemy lines.”

9 MOOD The feeling(s) the text arouses in the reader. Ex: Ominous, foreboding, hope, etc. Sympathetic: “The little bird chirped helplessly, alone.”

10 CHARACTERIZATION DIRECT: When the writer makes direct statements about a character’s personality. Example: The mean teacher told the class that everyone was going to fail. INDIRECT: When a writer makes statements about a character’s personality through his or her actions or statements. Example: With a scowl on his face, the teacher told the students that he didn’t want anyone to pass his class.

11 CONNOTATION All of the emotions and associations that a word evokes (brings to mind). Example: the word HOUSE vs. the word HOME

12 DENOTATION The dictionary definition of a word.

13 SYMBOL An object, person, or place that stands for something larger than itself. Examples: An American eagle is a symbol of freedom, liberty, strength…etc. A dove is a symbol of peace.

14 PROTAGONIST vs. ANTAGONIST PROTAGONIST: every story has one; the main or central character. The leading figure whose problem sets the plot in motion. ANTAGONIST: The opponent or adversary; the character who acts in opposition to the central character/protagonist.

15 Round vs. Flat Characters Round Character: Three dimensional character –the reader sees all sides of the character Flat Character: One-sided character –the reader sees only one aspect of the character’s personality

16 DYNAMIC vs. STATIC DYNAMIC CHARACTER: A character whose outlook on life CHANGES over the span of the story. STATIC CHARACTER: A character whose outlook on life does NOT change over the span of the story.

17 CONFLICT Man vs. Man: external struggle between two or more individuals. Man vs. Himself: internal struggle between a character and him or herself. Man vs. Nature: external struggle between one or more character(s) and the elements. Man vs. Society: external struggle between a character and the greater society/group.

18 Zeitgeist the spirit of the time; general trend of thought, feeling, or outlook characteristic of a particular period of time, especially as it is reflected in literature, philosophy, etc.

19 Setting The physical and social context in which the action of a story occurs. The main elements of setting are time and location.

20 Point of View Who tells a story and how it is told. Point-of-view may be categorized as first- person, third-person limited, or third-person omniscient.

21 First-person A point of view category that uses I. The narrator is a participant in the story.

22 Third-Person Limited A point of view category that uses the third- person he/she/they. The narrator does not participate in the action of the story. The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of only a single character.

23 Third-Person Omniscient A point of view category that uses the third- person he/she/they. The narrator does not participate in the action of the story. The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all characters.

24 Plot The selection and arrangement of events in a story that shape the action and focus. Climax Resolution Exposition Rising Action Falling Action

25 Exposition The introduction of the characters and background setting in a piece of literature.

26 Climax The turning point of a story when the conflict is resolved. Often it is considered the highest point of tension in a piece of literature.

27 Resolution Characterized by diminishing tension and the conclusion of the story’s conflict.

28 Allusion An allusion is an implied or indirect, brief reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event usually used as an analogy to help explain something that may be difficult to comprehend. Examples: 1. If you take his parking place, you can expect World War II all over again. 2. “Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, or memorise another Golgotha, I cannot tell---“ (Macbeth, I.ii.43-45). 3. “Will history repeat itself? Will David once again defeat Goliath?” (Courtenay 91).

29 Euphemism The substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one. The goal is to put something bad or embarrassing in a positive or neutral light. Many terms referring to death, sex, crime, and excremental functions are euphemisms. Examples: 1. “pass away” instead of “die” 2. “hatless snake” instead of “circumcised genitalia” 3. “relieve oneself” etc. instead of “sh*t”

30 Motif A recurring/dominant element, theme, image, idea, or pattern in a work of art.

31 Bildungsroman A German term for a genre of literature that concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. Sometimes it is referred to as a "Coming of Age Story."

32 Litotes A kind of understatement, where the speaker or writer uses a negative of a word ironically, to mean the opposite. Examples: 1. She's not the friendliest person I know. (= she's an unfriendly person) 2. He’s not a bad singer. (= pretty good singer) 3.“She asked, not unkindly” (Courtenay 33). (=nicely –Mevrou -almost concerned?)

33 Juxtaposition The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, effect, suspense, or character development.

34 Microcosm vs. Macrocosm Microcosm: A small, representative system having analogies to a larger system in constitution, configuration, or development Macrocosm: a complex structure, such as the universe, the whole world, or society, regarded as a whole unit

35 Diction The writer’s choice of words and ways of arranging the words Example: 1. Courtenay’s use of music terminology, boxing parlance, and litotes

36 Oxymoron A combination of words that have opposite or very different meanings Examples: jumbo shrimp alone in a crowd awfully nice act naturally random order

37 Onomatopoeia The naming of a thing or action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it Examples: buzz, hiss, hiccup, splash, drip, bam, plop, etc.

38 Apostrophe Rhetoric. A digression in the form of an address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea Examples: “O Death, where is thy sting?” “Poor Father! Of what then did you die?” (Wiesel 11).

39 Analogy A similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be logically based. example: heart : pump

40 Dichotomy paired or polar opposites

41 Imagery The author’s use of sensory details to create “mental images” for the reader. Imagery helps the reader see, hear, taste, smell, and/or feel the details of the story either through direct description or through the indirect use of metaphors, allusions, and other figurative language.

42 Parallelism similarity in the structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences. Also called parallel structure

43 Idiom an expression that cannot be understood from the meanings of its separate words but that has a separate meaning of its own Examples: He keeps tabs on his girlfriend. Why do you have a chip on your shoulder? Stop pulling my leg. Rodney spilled the beans.

44 Foreshadowing an advance sign or warning of what is to come in the future. Many mysteries employ foreshadowing to indicate a murder is about to occur. EX: When the man came home from work, he heard a loud, grumbling noise coming from his basement.

45 Irony Three Types of Irony: Verbal: the use of words that mean the opposite of what you really think especially in order to be funny Dramatic: irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play. Situational: a situation that is strange or funny because things happen in a way that seems to be the opposite of what you expected

46 Paradox a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth Examples: “I must be cruel to be kind.” Nobody goes to that restaurant; it is too crowded. “Child is the father of man” (Wordsworth).

47 Satire -A literary tone used to make fun of human vice or weakness, often with the intent of correcting or changing the subject of the attack. -the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. Example: Jonathan Swift’s “ A Modest Proposal,” in which he suggests resolving the issues of overpopulation and undernourishment by having people eat babies. Mark Twain’s attack on slavery with The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.”

48 Allegory A story in which people, things, and actions represent an idea or a generalization about life; allegories often have a strong moral or lesson. Examples: In Tim O’Brien’s “The Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong,” Mary Anne Bell’s changing from a high school sweetheart to a savage killer is an allegory for the death of the 1950s All-American boy and girl. Lord of the Flies, Animal Farm, The Hunger Games, etc.

49 Epic a long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation. Examples: Beowulf The Iliad The Odyssey

50 Metonymy A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty"). Examples: -The White House has decided to create more public service jobs. “White House is substituted for “president.” -“suits” for “business people”

51 Synecdoche Rhetoric. A figure of speech that names part of something to represent the whole. Examples: ten sail for ten ships “I was nothing but a body. Perhaps even less: a famished stomach” (Wiesel 52). “Take thy face hence” (Macbeth). Ed’s buddy was in the market for a new set of wheels.

52 Malapropism an act or habit of misusing words ridiculously, especially by the confusion of words that are similar in sound. Examples: Good punctuation means not to be late. (punctuality) Having one wife is called monotony. (monogamy) The flood damage was so bad they had to evaporate the city. (evacuate)

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