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15.2 Species and Speciation Overview

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1 15.2 Species and Speciation Overview
Evolution Results of evolution New species (speciation) Causes of evolution Barriers between same species (gene pools) Geographical isolation -> leads to allopatric speciation Temporal isolation -> leads to sympatric speciation Behavioral isolation -> leads to sympatric speciation Hybridization -> leads to sympatric speciation Types of Evolution Adaptive radiation Convergent evolution Divergent evolution Pace of Evolution Gradualism Punctuated equilibrium

2 Gene pool – all of the genetic information present in the reproducing members of a population at a given time A large gene pool exists in a population which shows high variation A small gene pool exists in a population which shows little variation (ex: inbreeding)

3 Allele frequency – measure of the proportion of a specific variation (allele) of a gene in a population; this can be stated as a proportion or a percent Remember, Hardy-Weinberg discussed this in terms of p and q where: p = frequency of the dominant allele q = frequency of the recessive allele and together p + q = 1 If there are no changes in allele frequency over time, then no evolution If there is big change in allele frequency over time, evolution has occurred

4 Review of what can change allele frequencies (and therefore the gene pool) within a population:
Mutations Immigration and emigration Nonrandom mating (ex: inbreeding/selective breeding) Some alleles are more advantageous than other alleles The population is small and therefore the allele frequencies are easier to manipulate

5 Species – the basic unit for classifying an organism
A species is made up of organisms which: Have the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring Share the same ecological niche Have the same karyotypes Have a common phylogeny (share common ancestor(s)) Share a unique collection of structural and functional characteristics

6 Barriers between Gene Pools
Barriers may exist where populations of members of the same species can be stopped from reproducing together; such barriers can be geographical, temporal, behavioral, or related to infertility caused by hybridization This slide is an overview of what is to come, no need to write it down!


8 Allopatric Speciation
When a new species forms from an existing species due to a geographic barrier

9 1. Geographical Isolation
Type of Allopatric Speciation! Occurs when physical barriers such as land or water formations prevent mating Ex: tree snails in Hawaii, 1 population lives on trees on one side of a volcano, the other population lives on trees on the other side of the volcano

10 Sympatric Speciation When a new species is formed from an existing species while living in the same geographic area This is much rarer than allopatric speciation

11 Type of Sympatric Speciation
1. Temporal Isolation Type of Sympatric Speciation Occurs when two populations mate or flower at different times of the year Ex: the female parts of one flower’s population reach maturity before the pollen of another flower’s population gets released Ex: one population of mammals is still hibernating while another population is ready to mate

12 Type of Sympatric Speciation
2. Behavioral Isolation Type of Sympatric Speciation Occurs when one population’s lifestyle and habits are not compatible with those of another population Ex: many birds rely on courtship displays to attract mates; if one population has a version of the courtship display which is significantly different from another population, they may not consider each other to be seductive enough to mate with

13 3. Hybrids Hybrids are typically infertile and therefore cannot pass on their karyotype This goes for plants and animals female horse + male donkey = mule male horse + female donkey = hinny female tiger + male lion = liger male tiger + female lion = tigon

14 How polyploidy leads to speciation:
Speciation is when a population evolves significantly enough so that the production of offspring with the original population becomes impossible Haploid – sex cells are monoploidy (n) Diploid – somatic cells are diploidy (2n) Polyploidy = more than 2 sets of chromosomes; 3n, 4n, 5n, ect. Ploidy changes among angiosperms are common including banana tree, tobacco plant, apple trees Also seen in animal kingdom with salamanders, frogs, and leeches

15 Studies have shown after polyploidy formation rapid changes in gene structure and expression can occur; if one population evolves enough to have significant change, then a new species can be formed NOTE: two similarly polyploidy organisms can interbreed ex: 8n sugar cane with another 8n sugar cane

16 Adaptive Radiation It is when many similar but distinct species evolve relatively rapidly from a single species or from a small number of species These organisms will share homologous structures with various functions Occurs due to variation, natural selection, and the exploitation of various niches

17 Lemurs of Madagascar Lemurs were able to survive (no other primates present) and adaptive radiation allowed them to fill all the islands niches On ground In trees In desert In rainforest

18 Divergent Evolution Divergent evolution is where organisms have a common ancestor, but have become more different as time goes by Example: The pentadactyl limb – the homologous structure in many vertebrates including the human arm, the fin of a whale, and the wing of a bird

19 Convergent Evolution Convergent evolution is where distantly related organisms evolve similar traits as they adapt to similar environments; they become more alike Example: Marsupials and placental organisms evolved separately on different continents, but both types evolved into all the niche of the area

20 In both types of evolution, it is the process of natural selection that allowed the organisms to adapt to their environments in the ways that they did

21 The Pace of Evolution Gradualism – the idea that evolution occurs over small, continuous, and slow changes First proposed in late 1700’s and was adopted by Darwin Supporters argue: fossil record shows a succession of small changes that is steady and ongoing must be gradual since we don’t witness it


23 Discuss ideas on the pace of evolution:
Punctuated equilibrium – the idea that evolution occurs relatively quickly and is followed by long periods of little or no change Theory developed 1900’s Supporters state speciation happens quickly, often in response to environmental changes fossils of animals like sharks and cockroaches show little change thru time


25 Problems with Either Arguments
Only evidence we can use is fossil evidence; can’t use characteristics such as pigmentation, behavior, mating calls/songs Just b/c a fossil looks like a modern day organism, doesn’t mean they are related

26 Describe one example of transient polymorphism
Polymorphisms – different versions of a species This Virginia Springbeauty flower shows polymorphism with its flower color

27 Transient polymorphism – where two or more forms of a species exist in the same population; it results in one form dominating the other form; can be result of mutation Ex: peppered moth Peppered form Melanic form

28 The phenomenon of factory pollution changing the population of peppered moths is called Industrial melanism. Shows how natural selection works in nature and no one trait is always good or bad Transient because the results can change over time

29 For sickle cell (homozygous recessive):
Balanced polymorphism – when the two different forms in a species are not changing, but are stabilized by natural selection Ex: sickle cell For sickle cell (homozygous recessive): AA = normal red blood cells, susceptible to malaria AS = normal and sickle blood cells, some resistance to malaria SS = sickle-shaped blood cells, highly resistant to malaria Due to the benefit of the sickle cell allele against malaria, the presence of the sickle allele is relatively stable and shows balanced polymorphism; one side shows pressure towards the allele, the other side shows pressure against the allele


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