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Stuart McAllister October 10, 2007

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1 Stuart McAllister October 10, 2007
“Effect on cutting force in turning hardened tool steels with cubic boron nitride inserts.” Authors: Mohammad Robiul Hossan & Li Qian Journal of Materials Processing Technology Volume 191, Issues 1-3, 1 August 2007, Pages Stuart McAllister October 10, 2007

2 Introduction A performance comparison of turning various hardened steels with CBN inserts is not available in literature. FEA results in terms of forces are presented for orthogonal high-speed machining of: AISI hardened bearing steel AISI H13 hot work tool steel AISI D2 cold work steel AISI 4340 low alloy steel

3 Introduction The following effects on forces were investigated:
Cutting speed Feed Cutter Geometry Workpiece hardness FEA results were compared with the experimental results reported in the referenced literature.

4 Models & Design Principles
AdvantEdge software used: To perform numerical simulations with FEA 2D Lagrangian FEA modeling software Models created: FEA model Machining process model Material properties model Friction model Detailed information on models in Ref. [10]

5 Models & Design Principles
Fig. 1 shows the schematic of orthogonal cutting conditions used for the 2D finite element mesh. The cutting tool is characterized by rake angle, relief angle, and cutting edge radius. The process parameters include feed f, cutting speed V, and depth of cut (doc). (Fig. 1.) 

6 Models & Design Principles
Table 1. material properties, heat treat process, application Material UTS YS E Heat Treat Process Application H13 1990 1650 210 Quench, annealing, stress relieving Die casting dies 52100 1640 1230 Quenched, harden Bearings D2 2940 2200 Harden Gages, long-run dies 4340 1300 1200 Quench, temper General application

7 Models & Design Principles
Table 2. Cutting process parameters in numerical simulations Workpiece hardness 44, 48, 52, 58 HRC Workpiece material AISI 52100, D2, H13, AISI 4340 Tool insert CBN Depth of cut (mm) 0.2 Feed (mm) 0.15, 0.3, 0.45, 0.6 Cutting speed (m/min) 140, 180, 240 Rake angle (°) −5, −15, −25 Edge radius (mm) 0.02, 0.06, 0.1, 0.2 Relief angle (°) 6

8 Results Data on cutting forces is essential:
For minimizing distortion of machine components, workpiece, fixture, and cutters. For selecting a machine and machine tool with adequate power. Forces arising from orthogonal cutting: Cutting Force – in direction of cutting speed Feed Force – normal to cutting speed

9 Results Forces do not change much with cutting speed within the recommended cutting speed range. Fig. 2. Effect of CS and workpiece material on cutting force. Fig. 3. Effect of CS and workpiece material on feed force.

10 Results Feed has the most significant effect on cutting and feed forces. Forces increase with the increase in feed due to an increase in chip load. Fig. 4. Effect of feed and material on cutting force. Fig. 5. Effect of feed and material on feed force.

11 Results Force increase as tool radius increases.
Forces increase as rake angle decreases. Fig. 7. Effect of rake angle and tool material on cutting force. Fig. 6. Effect of tool edge radius and tool material on cutting force.

12 Results Force increases as hardness increases.
Forces increase as depth of cut increases. Fig. 8. Effect of hardness and tool material on cutting force. Fig. 9. Effect of depth of cut on forces.

13 Conclusions Predicted cutting forces agree with available literature data with reasonable accuracy. Cutting force and feed force increase with increasing feed, tool edge radius, negative rake angle, and workpiece hardness. Feed force is a larger force component than cutting force in hard turning. Consistent with experimental and numerical results of other researchers.

14 Conclusions Under same turning conditions:
AISI 4340 highest cutting force AISAS highest feed force AISI D2 lowest cutting and feed forces Further work should include: More experimental runs to verify conclusions Investigating temperature, shear angle, chip geometry, shear stress, plastic strain rate Using 3D FEA model simulations

15 Conclusions Industrial Use? Technical Advancement?
A performance comparison of turning hardened steels with CBN inserts now available. Technical Advancement? No, but more information on hard turning available. Industries impacted? Those that perform hard machining with CBN inserts will have more data available to them.

16 References [1] L. Qian, S. Lei, R. Chen, Finite element analysis of hard turning bearing 201 steel AISI with various cutting inserts, ASME Pressure Vessels 202 and Piping Conference, PVP-ICPVT July, 2006,Vancouver, BC, Canada. [2] J. Hua, R. Shivpuri, X. Cheng, V. Bedekar, Y. Matsumoto, F. Hashimoto, T.R. Watkins, Effect of feed rate, workpiece hardness and cutting edge on subsurface residual stress in the hard turning of bearing steel using chamfer + hone cutting edge geometry, J. Mater. Sci. Eng. 394 (2005) 238–248. [3] Y. Huang, S.Y. Liang, Modeling of cutting forces under hard turning conditions considering tool wear effect, Trans. ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 127 (2005) 262–270. [4] E. Ng, D.K. Aspinwall, The effect of workpiece hardness and cutting speed on the machinability of AISI H13 hot work die steel when using PCBN tooling, Trans. ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 124 (2002) 582–594. [5] H. Yan, J. Hua, R. Shivpuri, Numerical simulation of finish hard turning for AISI H13 die steel, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 6 (2005) 540–547. [6] Y. Huang, S.Y. Liang, Cutting forces modeling considering the effect of tool thermal property—application toCBNhard turning, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 43 (2003) 307–315. [7] T. Ozel, Modeling of hard part machining: effect of insert edge preparation in CBN cutting tools, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 141 (2003) 284–293. [8] J.G. Lima, R.F. A´ vila, A.M. Abra˜o, M. Faustino, J.P. Davim, Hard turning: AISI 4340 high strength low alloy steel and AISI D2 cold work tool steel, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 169 (2005) 388–395. [9] J.A. Arsecularatne, L.C. Zhang, C. Montross, P. Mathew, On machining of hardened AISI D2 steel with PCBN tools, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 171 (2006) 244–252. [10] T.D. Marusich, M. Ortiz, Modeling and simulation of high-speed machining, Int. J. Numerical Method Eng. 38 (1995) 3675–3694.

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