Addressing Underlying Risk Factors: Caribbean Reducing Disaster Risk Report Ian King, Project Manager Caribbean Risk Management Initiative Barbados and the OECS CDM Conference and Knowledge Fair Barbados, 12 – 14 December 2006
CRMI Objectives Increased capacity for climate change adaptation and DRR Risk reduction and climate change adaptation integrated into development Increased investment in climate risk reduction projects Horizontal cooperation and experience sharing
Elements Caribbean Reducing Disaster Risk Report VCA Capacity Building in CC Adaptation and Modeling
Background & Rationale for a Caribbean RDR Report UNDP publication of global RDR Report – DRI Barbados launch Feb.2004 Need for a report reflecting Car. SIDS: – impact of disasters on Caribbean – risk data, indicators, analysis Build on experience & methodology of global RDR report & other initiatives (WB, IADB, GRIP) Advocacy tool & capacity building: contribute to efforts to reduce disaster risk at various levels Measure of individual & collective progress towards a sustainable dev. approach through reduction of risks & vulnerabilities
Disaster Risk Index (DRI)
Background & Rationale for a Caribbean RDR Report In WCDR in Kobe, an appeal to international community was made to: (1)Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation Countries that develop policy, legislative and institutional frameworks for disaster risk reduction and that are able to develop and track progress through specific and measurable indicators have greater capacity to manage risks and to achieve widespread consensus for, engagement in and compliance with disaster risk reduction measures across all sectors of society. (4) Reduce the underlying risk factors Disaster risks related to changing social, economic, environmental conditions and land use, and the impact of hazards associated with geological events, weather, water, climate variability and climate change, are addressed in sector development planning and programmes as well as in post-disaster situations.
Linkages with the CDM Overall strategic objective of CDM integrated into development processes and IR 5 – Hazard information incorporated into development planning and decision making –Caribbean RDR demonstrate the relationship between development and disasters both causal and effect –Focus is on changing development practices that treat vulnerability as an externality IR 2 – research, education & training support with specific emphasis on local situation re hazards, vulnerabilities and protective measures –Defining vulnerabilities relevant to the Caribbean is integral to this process The Caribbean RDR will serve the CDM as an advocacy tool which we see as critical to the overall process.
Scope of Caribbean RDR Relationship between disasters and development –Illustrating how vulnerability and disaster impacts are a function of development patterns Impact of climate change and variability: frequency & intensity of disasters in the region Economic & social factors affecting post-disaster recovery efforts & sustainable livelihoods Linkages with the MDGs – including link between poverty and vulnerability Disaster Risk Index (composite): long-term impact of disasters Linking data, indicators & analysis to policy actions
Target Audiences National & regional policymakers, public sector managers, development practitioners, national civil defense authorities Regional organizations Donors & international development agencies Research institutions Populations & communities in the region
RDR Process - Principles Participatory & consultative Local, national & regional ownership Scientific rigor Sustainability Build on existing capacities & initiatives Strengthen partnerships & community of risk management practice Strong advocacy/communications component Encourage shift from analysis & recommendations to implementation Final product to have relevance, focus and be a practical tool. Strong emphasis on dissemination Regional ownership and adoption
Caribbean RDR – Decisions Draft Concept note - early January 2007 Finalise the TORs, lead investigators, core group and various committees Develop outline of report development based on GRIP structure Finalise governance arrangements Develop strategy for information dissemination and engagement of the different publics Preliminary report by end 2007 and final by 1 st half of 2008
The Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) Methodology Three fundamental questions that need to be asked at country and regional levels : (1)Are planning strategies for environment and development in the Caribbean supported by the climate record? (2)What additional pressures will be placed on resources as a result of projected climatic variability and change? (3) What practical strategies may be engaged to reduce vulnerability and enhance physical, social, economic and ecological resilience?
The Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) Methodology Objective To adapt and advance vulnerability assessment methods that explicitly incorporates uncertainty and risk into system performance, technology assessment and investment strategies
The Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) Methodology The fundamentals in a simple assessment using the VCA Methodology: Step 1. What? Identifying the event and timescales of variability/change Probability, Magnitude, Frequency, Scope, Duration Step 2. Who? Identifying exposure and capacity to withstand changes Proximate: Individuals, groups, communities, Quantifying economic - property risks and opportunities Step 3. Why? Identifying the complex sources of risk –Complexity and interrelatedness of natural, social, and development factors –Why does a particular risk exist? Causal factors: What happened to make vulnerability high/low? –Whose decisions and choices are involved? Who is most affected by the decisions and choices? Step 4. Where and When? Time and space dimensions Dynamic change: Reversible, irreversible, cumulative or compounding –Interconnected scales, beneficial outcomes Step 5. How? Capacities Identify the resources available and what will be needed to build resilience Develop the programs, tools and mechanisms needed for capacity building
VCA Activities – St Lucia Collaboration between the UNDP CRMI and the MACC Focus on water resources in southern St Lucia Initiate VCA process with other countries to follow Support for KAP questionnaire Collection and analysis of climate data Conduct community discussions regarding climate change and variability issues and vulnerability Review of existing hazard maps and analysis of existing studies
Results of VCA Process in St Lucia Analysis of questionnaire results Development of preliminary climate scenarios for Eastern Caribbean including St Lucia through the MACC and CCCCC and the UWI Review of water resources assessment study and analysis in light of climate scenarios Draft analysis due by end of 2006 Review and discussion of draft VCA report with local steering committee and eventually presentation in public forum in 2007 within the SPAP and 2 nd National Communications including associated pilot activities
VCA initiatives in other Countries UNDP supported a UWI Intern and now consultant who has provided the local support to countries for implementation of the VCA St Lucia –Focus on water resources in southern watersheds St Vincent and the Grenadines –Focus on a vulnerable community and two of the islands of the Grenadines –Link to and informing the SPACC and SNC Trinidad & Tobago –Focus on Nariva Swamp, an important and threatened ecosystem Guyana –Focus on Agriculture Belize –Focus on water and tourism Jamaica –Focus on water resources and in particular desalinization
Capacity Building Supporting UWI – CERMES MSc (CC stream) and also the new Disaster Management Centre Facilitating cooperation between CCCCC; Cuban Institutions and Regional Institutions incl. UWI in CC Modeling
CRMI website at http://www.onu.org.cu/crmi/ http://www.onu.org.cu/crmi/ Contacts –Karen Bernard – Program Manager, UNDP Cuba –Ian King – Project Manager, UNDP Barbados and the OECS –Jane Mocellin – Disaster Reduction Advisor, UNDP Barbados and the OECS