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1 End-to-End Routing Behavior in the Internet Internet Routing Instability Presented by Carlos Flores Gaurav Jain May 31st. 2000 CS 6390 Advanced Computer.

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Presentation on theme: "1 End-to-End Routing Behavior in the Internet Internet Routing Instability Presented by Carlos Flores Gaurav Jain May 31st. 2000 CS 6390 Advanced Computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 End-to-End Routing Behavior in the Internet Internet Routing Instability Presented by Carlos Flores Gaurav Jain May 31st. 2000 CS 6390 Advanced Computer Networks Dr. Ravi Prakash

2 2 Topics of Presentation I. Introduction II. Routing Behavior in the Internet III. Routing Instability IV. Conclusions

3 3 Introduction Purpose of Studies  Analyze the routing behavior in the Internet for pathological conditions, routing stability and routing symmetry for end-to-end measurements.  Analyze BGP routing messages to examine Internet routing instability.

4 4 Routing Behavior Main questions * What pathologies and failures occur in routing? * Stable or unstable routes? * Symmetric or Asymmetric routes? Terms AS’s - Autonomous Systems. Set of routers and hosts unified by a single administrative authority. BGP - Border Gateway Protocol. Protocol used for transmission among different AS’s. Flapping - Frequent change of routes between AS’s.

5 5 Methodology Number of Internet sites: 37 Tools: - Traceroute - NPD (Network Probe Deamon) - npd_control program. Time: D1 dataset - collected Nov - Dec ‘94. D2 dataset - collected Nov - Dec ‘95. Size: D1 - 6991 Measurements. D2 - 37,097 Measurements.

6 6 Routing Pathologies 1) Routing loops: A) Forwarding Loops: Packets forwarded by a router return to the router. B) Information Loops: Router acts on connectivity info. derived by information it itself propagated earlier. C) Traceroute Loops: measurement reports the same sequence of routers multiple times. Results: D1 - 10 traceroute loops (0.13%) D2 - 50 traceroute loops (0.16%) Loops Duration:1) < 3 hours 2) > half day

7 7 Routing Pathologies 2) Erroneous Routing: D1 - 1 Packet routed to Israel instead of London! No safe assumption can be made of correct routing. 3) Connectivity Altered Midstream Results: Routes lost or altered: D1 - 10 traces D2 - 155 traces Conclusion: Recovery time bimodal: 1) <= 1 second 2) Order of 1 minute.

8 8 Routing Pathologies 4) Fluttering: Rapid oscillating routing. D2 - Very little fluttering observed. Problems: - Unstable Network paths - Occur in one direction (asymmetry) - Roundtrip time difficult to estimate. Advantages: Balance network load. 5) Infrastructure failure. “host unreachable” deep inside the network. Results:D1 - 99.8% Availability D2 - 99.5% Availability

9 9 Routing Pathologies 6) Unreachable due to too many hops. * Hop count not always proportional to geographic distance: A) End-to-end route 1500 Km: 3 hops. B) End-to-end route 3 Km: 11 hops. * Operational diameter of the Internet grown beyond default value of 30 hops. * Longer initial value of TTL needed.

10 10 Routing Pathologies 7) Temporary Outages. Sequence of consecutive traceroute packets lost.

11 11 Routing Pathologies 8) Time of day patterns. Temporary outages D2 - Minimum: 0.4%. Outages between 01:00 - 02:00 hrs. Maximum: 8.0%. Outages between 15:00 - 16:00 hrs. Infrastructure failure Minimum: 1.2%. 09:00 - 10:00 hrs. Maximum: 9.3%. 15:00 - 16:00 hrs.

12 12 Routing Pathologies Summary PathologyProbabilityTrendNotes Persistent loops0.13 – 0.16%Some lasted hours. Erroneous routing 0.004 - 0.004%No instances in D2 Mid-stream change 0.16% | 0.44%WorseRapidly varying routes Infraestructure failure 0.21% | 0.48%WorseNo dominant link Outage >= 30 secs 0.96% | 2.2%WorseDuration exponentially distributed Total Pathologies1.5% | 3.3%Worse

13 13 Routing Symmetry Goal: Assess the degree to which routes are symmetric or asymmetric. Effects of network asymmetries: Complicate network measurements, troubleshooting, accounting and routers’ anticipatory flow state. Sources: - Link asymmetric costs (bandwidth, payment scheme). - Configuration errors, inconsistencies. - “hot potato”, “cold potato” routing.

14 14 Routing Symmetry Analysis D2: 49% of measurements showed an asymmetric path visiting at least one different path. Size of asymmetries: - Majority of asymmetries confined to a single hop (only one city or AS different).

15 15 End-to-End Routing Stability Objective Do routes change often or are routes stable over time? * Views of routing stability: A) Prevalence – likeliness of observing the same route in the future. B) Persistence – How long a route will remain the same. * Routes level of granularity: - Internet granularity (host granurality) - City granularity - AS’s granularity

16 16 End-to-End Routing Stability * Routing Prevalence - Host granularity: For half of virtual paths measured, same route observed 82% or more of the time. Internet paths strongly dominated by a single route. -City granularity: 97% -AS granularity: 100% * Internet paths very strongly dominated by same set of cities and same AS’s, but significant site-to-site variation.

17 17 End-to-End Routing Stability * Routing Persistence How long a route is likely to endure before changing? Rapid Route Alternation: No high-frequency routing oscillation for measurements of less than 1 hour. Medium Scale Route Alternation: Observation of virtual paths spaced 1 hour apart not likely to suffer a route change. Large scale Route Alternation: 90% chance of observing a route with a duration of at least a week.

18 18 End-to-End Routing Stability * Summary of routing persistence: -Route changes occur over a wide range of time scales (seconds to days) - 2/3 of Internet paths have stable routes lasting from days to weeks. Time Scale%Notes 10’s of minutes9%Mainly route changes inside the network Hours4%Usually intra-network changes 6+hours19%Intra-network changes Days68%50% less than a week 50% more than a week

19 19 Internet Routing Instability Analysis based on data collected from BGP routing messages (interdomain routing). What is Routing Instability? Rapid change of network reachability and topology information. Origins: Router configuration errors. Physical and data link problems. Software bugs.

20 20 Internet Routing Instability Effects: Increase packet loss. Delays in time for network convergence. Resource overhead (memory, CPU) within Internet Infrastructure. Terminology: Prefixes: Destination IP addresses blocks. ASPATH: List of AS’s numbers in a particular route.

21 21 Internet Routing Instability Routing forms: 1.Announcements. 2.Withdrawals. Types of interdomain routing updates: Forwarding instability. Routing policy fluctuation. Redundant pathological updates. Instability: Forwarding Instability + Routing policy fluctuation.

22 22 Internet Routing Instability Methodology * Time of study: 9 months. 1996 * Data: Logged BGP routing messages at 5 major U.S. Network exchange points. * Purpose: - Analyze the BGP data in attempt to characterize and understand the origins and operational impact of routing instability.

23 23 Internet Routing Instability * Update categories: A = Announcement W = Withdrawal - WADiff: route withdrawn and replaced with an alternative route. - AADiff: route implicitly withdrawn and replaced by a preferred alternative path. - WADup: route explicitly withdrawn and then reannounced as reachable. - AADup: route implicitly withdrawn and replaced with a duplicate of original. - WWDup: repeated transmission of BGP withdrawals for a prefix currently unreachable. Analysis of pathological routing information

24 24 Internet Routing Instability * Update categories: Analysis of pathological routing information InstabilityPathological behavior WADup WWDupAADiff WADiff AADup 5% 95%

25 25 Internet Routing Instability 1) BGP updates dominated by WWDup. 2) AADup and WADup consistently dominate the remaining categories. 3) Only a small portion of BGP updates contribute to AADiff and WADiff. Results

26 26 Internet Routing Instability * All pathological routing incidents caused by small service providers. * Some WWDups caused by a vendor’s router implementation decision. * Instability: AADiff + WADiff + WADups. * Trends: Peaks of updates in the afternoons. Little instability in the weekend. * Routing instability closely related to bandwidth usage and packet loss. Results

27 27 Internet Routing Instability * Plot of time of day vs. no. of updates --> bell shaped curve (peak afternoon). * Weekends --> less instability * Rigorous approach to identify instability frequency - peak at 24 hrs. and 7 days. * In a day, periodicity observed at 30 s. and 60 s. * NO SINGLE ROUTE DOMINATES INSTABILITY. * NO SINGLE AS DOMINATES INSTABILITY. Results

28 28 Internet Routing Instability * Stateless BGP implementations. * Each withdrawal induces some short lived pathological network oscillation. * Oscillations due to misconfigured CSUs. * Jittered timer to coalesce multiple routing updates. * Unjittered timers in periodic message model. * Improper configuration of the interaction between interior gateway protocols and BGP. Possible origins of routing pathologies

29 29 Internet Routing Instability * 99% of routing information is pathological (redundant) and many not reflect real network topological changes. * Although redundant updates are quickly discarded by routers, they consume router resources and high rates of them (300 updates per second) can crash a router. * Forwarding instability highly present: * 3-10% of routes have 1 or more WADiff per day. * 5-20% of routes have 1 or more AADiff per day. * 10-50% 1 or more WADup per day. Results...

30 30 Conclusions zNo “typical” Internet site or path. zLikelihood of encounter a major routing pathology more than doubled from 1994-1995. zInternet paths heavily dominated by a prevalent route, but routes persistence show wide variation of time (seconds to days). z2/3 of Internet routes have routes persisting from days or weeks.

31 31 Conclusions zInternet routing instability still poorly understood. zBy 1995, half of virtual paths differ by >=1 city in a two way path. zHow can we make it better?

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