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The Game of Algebra or The Other Side of Arithmetic The Game of Algebra or The Other Side of Arithmetic © 2007 Herbert I. Gross by Herbert I. Gross & Richard A. Medeiros next Lesson 12

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Linear Relationships Linear Relationships © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next

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In this lesson, as well as in the next several lessons, we will be discussing problems that involve constant rates of change. Most rates of change are not constant. For example, if you drive 100 miles in 2 hours, it is highly unlikely that you drove at a constant rate of 50 miles per hour for the entire 2 hours. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Prelude

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next However, it should be noted that in most real life situations even non-constant rates of change may be considered to be constant if measured over sufficiently small intervals of time. For example, a person's life may change dramatically over a period of twenty years. Yet on a day to day basis, the changes usually are not even noticeable. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Prelude In any case, since problems involving constant rates are relatively easy to analyze, they make a good starting point for our algebra course. next

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If the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another is constant, we say that the relationship between the two quantities is linear. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Definition D For example, the relationship between feet and inches is a linear relationship because the rate of change of inches with respect to feet is constant (that is, there are always 12 inches per foot). next

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On the other hand, the relationship between the length of a square’s side and the area of the square is not linear. That is, the rate of change of the square’s area with respect to the length of one of the square’s sides is not constant. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross This is easy to see if we make a table that shows how each change in the length (L) of its side changes the square’s area (A). next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross Length (L)Area (L× L)Rate of Change 1 inch1 square inch 2 inches4 square inches 3 square inches per inch 3 inches9 square inches 5 square inches per inch 4 inches16 square inches 7 square inches per inch

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next If a relationship is linear, we can always write it in a special form. This form will be developed during our discussion of the following example… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Suppose you decide to buy pens for your office, and that a box of pens contains 12 pens (the constant rate here is 12 pens per box). To get a cheaper price, you decide to buy the pens by the box. Since each box contains the same number of pens (12), it is easy to compute how many pens you bought once you know how many boxes you bought. next

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Namely… 2007 Herbert I. Gross Using the language of algebra, the above three steps can be conveniently abbreviated as… next 1. Start with the number of boxes you bought. 2. Multiply by 12. 3. The answer is the number of pens you bought. p = 12n n 12n p

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next Of course there may be a difference between the number of pens you bought and the number of pens you have. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross For example, suppose you have 5 pens in the office before you buy the other pens. Then the total number of pens you will have is 5 more than the number of pens you bought. next

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Therefore, if you now wanted to know the total number of pens (T) you will have, the previous “recipe” would have to be replaced by… 2007 Herbert I. Gross Translating this “recipe” into an algebraic formula, we have… next 1. Start with the number of boxes you bought. 2. Multiply by 12 3. Add 5. T = 12n + 5 n 12n 12n + 5 4. The answer is the total number of pens you now have. T to find the number of pens you bought. The number of pens you already had.

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next Since we don't always have to be talking about the number of boxes (n) and the number of pens (T), we can rewrite the formula T = 12n + 5 in a more general way. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross ► T o begin with, in order to keep the formula as general as possible, it is traditional to denote the “input” (the number we start with) by the letter “x” and the “output ”(the answer we get) by the letter “y”. next

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► Secondly, there could have been a different number of pens per box. Hence, rather than 12 (pens/box), we could let m denote the number we multiply x by. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross ► Similarly, we could let b denote the number of pens we already had in the office before buying more. next

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So if we now denote the input by the letter x and the output by the letter y, the generalized formula becomes… 2007 Herbert I. Gross Translating these four steps into the language of algebra, we have… next 1. Start with the input. 2. Multiply by m 3. Add b. y = mx + b x mxmx mx + b 4. The answer is the output y

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next ► Any relationship that can be expressed in the form of y = mx + b is called linear. (See the appendix at the end of this lesson for a geometric interpretation of why the term “linear” was chosen.) © 2007 Herbert I. Gross ► More specifically, if m and b are constants, the expression “mx + b” is said to be linear in x. next

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The important thing to remember about the relationship… y = mx + b is, that the rate of change of y with respect to x is determined solely by the value of m and has nothing to do with the value of b. This may be easier to understand in terms of the number of pens in a box and the number of pens we already had. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Note

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next For example, suppose there are still 12 pens in each box we buy, but the number of pens we start with is 8 instead of 5. Then, the formula for the total number of pens is given by… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Note T = 12n + 8

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next If we compare formulas T = 12n + 5 and T = 12n + 8, we see that the multiplier of n is the same (that is, in each case there are 12 pens in a box), but the value of b has changed (that is, we have changed the number of pens we had before buying more). © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Comparing Formulas

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next However, suppose now we change the multiplier of n but leave b alone. For example, suppose we write that… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross T = 24n + 5 This formula tells us that we still started with 5 pens, but that the rate of change of T with respect to n is now 24. That is, the above formula represents the total number of pens (T) when there were 24 pens in each box we bought, and we started with 5 pens which were already in the office. next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross The correct definition of linear is that the rate of change of y with respect to x is constant. However, it is often helpful to write the relationship in the form y = mx + b; in which case m represents this rate of change. Reminder

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next When b ≠ 0, the average cost per box is not the same as the actual cost per box. For example, suppose that, in addition to the $3 per box, there is also a $5 “shipping and handling charge”. As shown in the chart below the average cost per box changes as you buy more boxes … © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Special Note on Average Cost Number of boxes (x) 1$8 2$11$5.50 10$35$3.50 100$305$3.05 Total Cost (3x + 5) Average Cost/Box [(3x + 5) ÷ x] next

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In particular, even though 2 boxes of pens is double the number of pens in 1 box, the cost of buying 2 boxes ($11) was not twice the cost of buying 1 box ($ 8). More specifically, as the number of boxes we buy increases, the average cost per box gets closer and closer to $3 but will always be more than $3. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Special Note on Average Cost

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next. In other words, in the relationship y = mx + b; y increases by the same amount (m) whenever x increases by 1. However, if b is not equal to 0, the average change in y with respect to x is not constant. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Special Note on Average Cost

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next However, if b = 0, then we have a direct proportion between x and y. For example, if the cost per box remains $3, but there is no shipping and handling charge we see that… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Special Note on Average Cost Number of boxes (x) 1$3 2$6$3 10$30$3 100$300$3 Total Cost (3x) Average Cost/Box (3x ÷ x) next

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Appendix A Geometric Interpretation of the Word “Linear” © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next In many real-life situations we find ourselves saying that… “A picture is worth a thousand words.”

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Notice, for example… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross ► how many illustrations (pictures) are included in the directions for assembling any “do it yourself” project; next ► or how many times you may look at a map (a picture) before you describe in words what route a person should follow;

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross next ► or how many times we use geometric language to describe arithmetic or algebraic concepts. For example, when the temperature is increasing, we often describe it by saying that temperature is rising. ► or when we want to multiply a number by itself (arithmetic), we say “square (geometric shape) the number”.

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An ordinary ruler is an excellent illustration of how we combine arithmetic and geometry. In effect, a ruler is a straight line (which is a geometric concept), along which we mark off certain points (also a geometric concept); but then we give these points numerical names. So in essence the ruler serves as a number line. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross The Number Line

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next The concept of a linear relationship is easier to visualize in terms of a graph. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Note In essence: To construct a graph, we choose two number lines which are perpendicular to one another. next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross ► One number line (usually drawn horizontally) is referred to as the x-axis. We choose the positive direction to be from left to right. In terms of our program or recipe, the x-axis usually denotes the input. next ► The other number line is then drawn perpendicular to the x-axis, and it is referred to as the y-axis. We choose the upward direction as being the positive direction. The y-axis denotes the output. x-axis y-axis

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross ► The resulting diagram is often referred to as the xy-plane. next x y The arrows point in the positive direction.

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A road map is an example of this kind of geometric thinking. It indexes streets in the form of a grid with perhaps the columns labeled alphabetically (that is, A, B, C, etc.), and the rows labeled numerically (that is, 1, 2, 3, etc.,). © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Road Map So if a location is labeled, for example, B3, you look for it in the sector in which column B meets row 3. next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross Since there are “lots” of points in the xy-plane, how can we direct the person to locate precisely the point that we are thinking of (such as point P as indicated below)? next x y P

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross next One way might be to give a set of directions such as… “Starting on the x-axis at 0; x y P 0 first go 2 units horizontally to the left on the x-axis, and then go vertically upward 3 units.”

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross - 2 is referred to as the x-coordinate of P; and 3 is referred to as the y-coordinate of P. The custom is to abbreviate the above by enclosing the x-coordinate followed by the y-coordinate in parentheses. Thus, in the present illustration, point P would be represented by the ordered pair ( - 2,3). x y P (0,0) ( - 2,0) (0,3) ( - 2,3) next

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Notice the importance of order; the point denoted by ( - 2,3) for which x = - 2 and y = 3, is not the same point as the point (3, - 2) for which x = 3 and y = - 2 © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next x y 0 ( - 2,3) More specifically, (3, - 2) denotes the point you arrive at when after starting at 0, you move 3 units to the right and then 2 units down. (3, - 2) next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross The idea of an ordered pair is not necessary when we look at a road map. That is, whether we write B3 or 3B, it still means the sector in which column B meets row 3. It's when both coordinates are numbers that order becomes important. Road Map

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next This method of representing points by ordered pairs of numbers was invented by Rene Descartes, a French philosopher, theologian, and mathematician who lived in the 16th century. In his honor, the xy-plane is called the Cartesian Plane. It was Descartes’ ambition to find a way of uniting algebra and geometry, and the Cartesian Plane allowed him to do that. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross

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next In fact, it is the Cartesian Plane that gives us a geometric way to view algebraic relationships. Consider, for example, the linear relationship… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross We may view x as the input and y as the output, and then make a chart similar to our earlier ones. y = 2x + 3 next Not Just a Road Map

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next The chart follows… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross xy = 2x + 32x2x + 3 1525 2747 3969 4118 -5-5 -7-7 - 10 -7-7 2/32/3 41/341/3 4/34/3 41/341/3 (The last two rows are there as a reminder that the input can be any number; not just a whole number.) next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross Thus, we may use the notation (2,7) as an abbreviation for the statement… “When the input is 2 the output is 7.” In this way the previous chart can be abbreviated by our talking about the set of ordered pairs… next (1,5), (2,7), (3,9), (4,11), ( 5,7), ( 2 / 3,4 1 / 3 ), etc. The collection of ordered pairs we get in this way is called the graph of the relationship.

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If we now identify the ordered pairs (1,5), (2,7), (3,9), (4,11), ( - 5, - 7), ( 2 / 3,4 1 / 3 ), etc. with the points… (1,5), (2,7), (3,9), (4,11), ( - 5, - 7), ( 2 / 3,4 1 / 3 ), etc. in the Cartesian Plane, we obtain a “picture” of the graph (which is shown on the next slide). © 2007 Herbert I. Gross

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The picture is shown above… next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross (1,5) (2,7) (3,9) (4,11) (0,0) next ( - 5, - 7)

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross (1,5) (2,7) (3,9) (4,11) (0,0) x y Looking at the points that we've graphed, it is easy to see that not only are they on the same straight line, but also that the line rises by 2 units for every 1 unit we move to the right. next

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When we refer to the graph of the linear equation y = mx + b, we introduce some new vocabulary. More specifically… © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Some New Terminology ♦ Instead of referring to “the output” we talk about the “rise” of the line. ♦ Instead of talking about “the input” we talk about the “run”. ♦ Instead of referring to m (in the equation y = mx + b) as “the rate of change in the output with respect to the input” we talk about the “slope of the line”. next

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In summary, when we are talking about the line whose equation is y = mx + b, we refer to m as the slope of the line, and we define the slope to be the rate of change of the rise with respect to the run. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next The slope is one way to describe the direction of the line. For example, in the present illustration, it says that if we start at any point on the line, every time we move 1 unit in the positive direction the line rises by 2 units.

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross next Pictorially… run 1 rise 2 x (1,5) (2,7) (3,9) (4,11) (0,0) y

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross While representing equations geometrically is often very helpful, we should keep in mind that geometric models are limited to 3 dimensions. This creates problems when a formula contains several variables. The Limitations of a Geometric Model

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next Recall that we identified the ordered pair (x,y) with the point (x,y) in the Cartesian Plane. This identification worked well because the equation y = mx + b contains only two variables (x and y), and hence, its graph could be represented in 2-dimensional space (in this case, the xy-plane). © 2007 Herbert I. Gross

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross For this reason we also refer to the equation y = mx + b as being 2-dimensional. Mathematically speaking, the dimension of an equation is the number of variables it contains. Hence, it makes sense to talk about equations that have four or more dimensions, even though there is no geometric counterpart for equations that have more than 3 dimensions.

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross In our course, we are concentrating on 2-dimensional equations, such as y = mx + b. However in most real-life formulas, there are more than two dimensions (that is, more than 2 variables). For example, the formula for determining the area (z) in square inches of a rectangle whose base is x inches and whose height is y inches is… z = xy next x y

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross In this case, the output is z but there are now two inputs that determine the value of z, namely x and y. In this case, the graph of the equation would be the set of ordered triplets (x,y,z); and even though it now requires 3 dimensions, we can still represent the graph geometrically; but the concept of slope becomes a bit more difficult to describe.

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross A more significant problem arises if we have to deal with four or more variables in a formula. For example, a formula that expresses the volume (v) of a rectangular box in cubic inches is … v = xyz next …where x, y and z represent the dimensions of the box in inches. x y z

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross In this case, the algebraic definition of the graph of the formula is 4-dimensional because the input consists of the 3 variables x,y and z; and the output (v) is the 4th variable. That is, algebraically speaking, the graph of this formula, while still defined to be the set of pairs (input, output), is now the set of ordered “4-tuples” (x,y,z,v); and in this case the geometric version of the graph would require a (nonexistent) 4-dimensional, geometric space.

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross For this reason, our own preference is to emphasize the terminology “rate of change” rather than to rely too heavily on such visual terms as “rise”, “run” and “slope”. Key Point

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Summary – Algebraic/Geometric Terminology and Usage

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next If we “personify” the relationship y = 2x + 3 in terms of, say, buying candy bars for $2 each plus an overall $3 shipping and handling charge, we are saying that for every candy bar we buy, our cost increases by $2. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross The fact that all the points in the graph of y = 2x + 3 lie on the same straight line is the reason that we call the relationship y = 2x + 3 linear. next

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The x-axis and y-axis are straight lines, and hence, we view them as being geometric entities. However, in the spirit of Descartes, we would like to be able to represent all lines (and other curves as well) in the xy-plane in terms of algebraic equations. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross The Cartesian Plane from an Algebraic Point of View

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next With this in mind, let's see what it means for the point (x,y) to be on the x-axis. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross If its y-coordinate is positive (that is y > 0), the point (x,y) is above the x-axis, and if its y-coordinate is negative (y < 0), the point is below the x-axis. x-axis next y > 0 y < 0

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next Thus, if a point (x,y) is on the x-axis, its y-coordinate is 0. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross So, for example, the points (2,0), ( - 3,0), and ( 3 / 4,0) are all on the x-axis. x-axis next y-axis (2,0)( - 3,0)( 3 / 4,0)

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next By analogous reasoning, if x is positive, the point (x,y) will be to the right of the y-axis; © 2007 Herbert I. Gross and if x is negative, the point (x,y) will be to the left of the y-axis. x > 0 next y-axis x < 0

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next Thus, if a point (x,y) is on the y-axis, its x-coordinate is 0. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross So, for example, the points (0,2), (0, - 3),and (0, 3 / 4 ) are on all the y-axis. x-axis next y-axis (0,2) (0, - 3) (0, 3 / 4 )

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next In a similar way, the line y = 2 means the set of all points (x,y) in the Cartesian Plane for which y = 2. Another way of saying this is: “y = 2 is the line that passes through the point (0,2) and is parallel to the x-axis”. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next x y (0,0) (0,2) (3,2) ( - 3,2) y = 2 The points (3,2) and ( - 3,2) are also shown on this line. next

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More generally: If c represents any number (positive, negative, or 0), the line y = c is the line that passes through the point (0,c) and is parallel to the x-axis. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross

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next Thus, in much the same way that y = 0 is the equation of the x-axis; x = 0 is the equation of the y-axis. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next x-axis y-axis x = 0 next

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© 2007 Herbert I. Gross x y x = 3 (3,0) (3,2) (3, - 4) (0,0) In a similar way, x = 3 is the set of points (x,y) for which x = 3. In other words, in terms of the Cartesian Plane, x = 3 represents the line that passes through the point (3,0) and is parallel to the y-axis. next The points (3,2) and (3, - 4). are also shown on this line.

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Again, more generally: If c represents any number, the line x = c is the line that passes through the point (c,0) and is parallel to the y-axis. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross

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next This gives us another way to describe a point such as (3,2). Namely (3,2) is the point that is on both lines x = 3 and y = 2. In other words (3,2) represents the point at which the vertical line x = 3 and the horizontal line y = 2 intersect. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross next x y 0 (3,2) x = 3 y = 2

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next Prior to this discussion x = 3 referred to a number, and now it refers to a line. How are we to tell which way we're viewing it? The answer is that if our discussion is about the x-axis, then x = 3 is the point P on the x-axis that is 3 units to the right of 0. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Caution next 0123 P x-axis –1–1

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next © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Caution On the other hand, if our discussion is about the Cartesian Plane (that is, the xy-plane) then x = 3 represents all the points (x,y) for which x = 3. next x-axis (0,0) (1,0)(2,0) (3,0) x = 3 ( - 1,0) y-axis

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next Thanks to the work of Descartes, we may view geometric figures in terms of algebraic equations and algebraic equations in terms of geometric figures. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Algebraic/Geometric For example, the equation y = 2x + 3 can be viewed in the Cartesian Plane as the straight line L that consists of the set of points (x,y) for which y = 2x + 3. This allows us to see quite visually how “linear” and “line” are related. next

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Conversely, the straight line L that consists of the set of points (x,y) in the xy-plane for which y = 2x + 3 can be viewed as the algebraic equation y = 2x + 3. So, for example, to find the point on L whose x-coordinate is 400, we do not have to draw the line to scale and then locate the point geometrically. Rather we need only replace x by 400 in the equation y = 2x + 3 to determine that y = 2(400) + 3 = 803. Therefore, the desired point is (400,803). © 2007 Herbert I. Gross

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next The idea of being able to use pictures and equations interchangeably is often quite helpful. © 2007 Herbert I. Gross Key Point

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