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20 th -Century Discoveries of New Testament Apocrypha Manuscripts.

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Presentation on theme: "20 th -Century Discoveries of New Testament Apocrypha Manuscripts."— Presentation transcript:

1 20 th -Century Discoveries of New Testament Apocrypha Manuscripts

2 Oxyrhynchus, Egypt (1897–1903) Known in the Dynastic period as Per-medjed, Oxyrhynchus rose to prominence under Egypt ’ s Hellenistic and Roman rulers. It was a prosperous regional capital, reckoned the third city of Egypt, and home town of the sophist Athenaeus. In later antiquity it was famous for its many churches and monasteries. Archeological excavations on the site of an ancient library there eventually recovered over 5000 fragments of ancient Greek texts once present in the library

3 Nag Hammadi, Egypt (1945) The Nag Hammadi Library was discovered at the foot of the cliffs called Jabal al-Tarif, near the hamlet Hamrah Dum. The Nag Hammadi Library was discovered at the foot of the cliffs called Jabal al-Tarif, near the hamlet Hamrah Dum. Not far away from the site there lie remnants of Christian monasteries founded by St. Pachomius (A.D. 292 – 346). Not far away from the site there lie remnants of Christian monasteries founded by St. Pachomius (A.D. 292 – 346).

4 I.(The Jung Codex)The Jung CodexI.(The Jung Codex)The Jung Codex  1. The Prayer of the Apostle Paul  2. The Apocryphon of James  3. The Gospel of Truth (1st copy)  4. The Treatise on the Resurrection  5. The Tripartite Tractate  1. The Prayer of the Apostle Paul  2. The Apocryphon of James  3. The Gospel of Truth (1st copy)  4. The Treatise on the Resurrection  5. The Tripartite Tractate

5 II.  1. The Apocryphon of John (1st copy -- long version)  2. The Gospel of Thomas  3. The Gospel of Philip  4. The Hypostasis of the Archons  5. On the Origin of the World (1st copy)  6. The Exegesis on the Soul  7. The Book of Thomas the Contender  1. The Apocryphon of John (1st copy -- long version)  2. The Gospel of Thomas  3. The Gospel of Philip  4. The Hypostasis of the Archons  5. On the Origin of the World (1st copy)  6. The Exegesis on the Soul  7. The Book of Thomas the Contender

6 III.  1. The Apocryphon of John (2nd copy -- translation 1 of short version)  2. The Gospel of the Egyptians (1st copy -- translation 1)  3. Eugnostos the Blessed (1st copy)  4. The Sophia of Jesus Christ (1st copy)  5. The Dialogue of the Saviour  1. The Apocryphon of John (2nd copy -- translation 1 of short version)  2. The Gospel of the Egyptians (1st copy -- translation 1)  3. Eugnostos the Blessed (1st copy)  4. The Sophia of Jesus Christ (1st copy)  5. The Dialogue of the Saviour

7 IV.  1. The Apocryphon of John (3rd copy -- long version. Copy of same Coptic translation as II.1)  2. The Gospel of the Egyptians (2nd copy-- translation 2)  1. The Apocryphon of John (3rd copy -- long version. Copy of same Coptic translation as II.1)  2. The Gospel of the Egyptians (2nd copy-- translation 2)

8 V.  1. Eugnostos the Blessed (2nd copy)  2. The Apocalypse of Paul  3. The (First) Apocalypse of James  4. The (Second) Apocalypse of James  5. The Apocalypse of Adam  1. Eugnostos the Blessed (2nd copy)  2. The Apocalypse of Paul  3. The (First) Apocalypse of James  4. The (Second) Apocalypse of James  5. The Apocalypse of Adam

9 VI.  1. The Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles  2. The Thunder: Perfect Mind  3. Authoritative Teaching  4. The Concept of Our Great Power  5. Plato, Republic 588a-589b  6. The Discourse on the Eight and Ninth  7. The Prayer of Thanksgiving  7a. Scribal Note  8. Asclepius  1. The Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles  2. The Thunder: Perfect Mind  3. Authoritative Teaching  4. The Concept of Our Great Power  5. Plato, Republic 588a-589b  6. The Discourse on the Eight and Ninth  7. The Prayer of Thanksgiving  7a. Scribal Note  8. Asclepius 21-29

10 VII.  1. The Paraphrase of Shem  2. The Second Treatise of the Great Seth  3. Apocalypse of Peter  4. The Teachings of Silvanus  5. The Three Steles of Seth  1. The Paraphrase of Shem  2. The Second Treatise of the Great Seth  3. Apocalypse of Peter  4. The Teachings of Silvanus  5. The Three Steles of Seth

11 VIII.  1. Zostrianos  2. The Letter of Peter to Philip  1. Zostrianos  2. The Letter of Peter to Philip

12 IX – X.  IX.  1. Melchizedek  2. The Thought of Norea  3. The Testimony of Truth  X. Marsanes  IX.  1. Melchizedek  2. The Thought of Norea  3. The Testimony of Truth  X. Marsanes

13 XI.  1. The Interpretation of Knowledge  2. A Valentinian Exposition:  2a. On the Anointing  2b. On Baptism  A2c. On Baptism  B2d. On the Eucharist  A2e. On the Eucharist  B3. Allogenes  4. Hypsiphrone  1. The Interpretation of Knowledge  2. A Valentinian Exposition:  2a. On the Anointing  2b. On Baptism  A2c. On Baptism  B2d. On the Eucharist  A2e. On the Eucharist  B3. Allogenes  4. Hypsiphrone

14 XII. (Mostly burned)  1. The Sentences of Sextus (10 pages only of about 39 originally).  2. The Gospel of Truth (2nd copy)  3. Fragments  1. The Sentences of Sextus (10 pages only of about 39 originally).  2. The Gospel of Truth (2nd copy)  3. Fragments

15 XIII.  1. Trimorphic Protennoia  2. On the Origin of the World (2nd copy)  This 'codex' consists of only 8 leaves, removed from some volume in antiquity and tucked inside the front cover of codex VI. Papyrus Berolinensis 8502 (BG), Early 5th century  1. The Gospel of Mary  2. The Apocryphon of John (4th copy -- translation 2 of short version)  3. The Sophia of Jesus Christ (2nd copy)  4. The Acts of Peter  1. Trimorphic Protennoia  2. On the Origin of the World (2nd copy)  This 'codex' consists of only 8 leaves, removed from some volume in antiquity and tucked inside the front cover of codex VI. Papyrus Berolinensis 8502 (BG), Early 5th century  1. The Gospel of Mary  2. The Apocryphon of John (4th copy -- translation 2 of short version)  3. The Sophia of Jesus Christ (2nd copy)  4. The Acts of Peter

16 Related Discoveries: The Dead Sea Scrolls (1947ff) The Dead Sea is located in Israel and Jordan, about 15 mi. E of Jerusalem The site eventually produced thousands of scroll fragments from eleven caves An additional discovery was the Qumran ruin, a complex of structures located on a barren terrace between the cliffs where the caves are found and the Dead Sea. The scrolls and the Qumran ruin date from the third century B.C.E. to 68 C.E. The scrolls are older than any other surviving biblical manuscripts by almost 1,000 years The Dead Sea is located in Israel and Jordan, about 15 mi. E of Jerusalem The site eventually produced thousands of scroll fragments from eleven caves An additional discovery was the Qumran ruin, a complex of structures located on a barren terrace between the cliffs where the caves are found and the Dead Sea. The scrolls and the Qumran ruin date from the third century B.C.E. to 68 C.E. The scrolls are older than any other surviving biblical manuscripts by almost 1,000 years


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