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12.2 Vitamins chapter 19. MICRONUTRIENTS 2 Vitamins are nutritionally important organic compounds. Often coenzymes or cofactors for enzyme function. Vitamins.

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Presentation on theme: "12.2 Vitamins chapter 19. MICRONUTRIENTS 2 Vitamins are nutritionally important organic compounds. Often coenzymes or cofactors for enzyme function. Vitamins."— Presentation transcript:

1 12.2 Vitamins chapter 19

2 MICRONUTRIENTS 2 Vitamins are nutritionally important organic compounds. Often coenzymes or cofactors for enzyme function. Vitamins form biochemically through the life processes of the plants and animals we eat. Plants and animals synthesize vitamins.

3 Originally it was thought these necessary compounds were all amines. Since they were vital to our health they became known as “vital amines”, ie. vitamines. When it was discovered that some were not amines, ie. not ' --ines', the name was changed to vitamins.

4 The fat - soluble vitamins are much more soluble in fats, hydrocarbons and similar solvents than in water Vitamins A, D, K, E Water- soluble vitamins are much more soluble in water than in 'organic' solvents. C, B complex (B 1,2,3,6,12 ), Pantothenic acid(B 5 ), Biotin(B 7 ), Folate(B 9 )

5 Vitamin Requirements Water-Soluble Thiamin (B 1 ) Riboflavin (B 2 ) Niacin (B 3 ) Pantothenic acid (B 5 ) Pyridoxine (B 6 ) Biotin (B 7 ) Folic acid (B 9 ) Cobalamin (B 12 ) Ascorbic acid (C) Name(Letter)RDI 1.5 mg 1.7 mg 2 mg 10 mg 2 mg 0.3 mg 0.4 mg 6  g 60 mg

6 Vitamin Requirements Name(Letter)RDI Retinol (A) Calciferol (D) *Tocopherol (E) Phylloquinone (K) Oil-soluble 5000 IU 400 IU 30 IU 70  g WHAT is An IU??

7 Vitamin levels in foods or supplements are sometimes stated in Retinol Equivalents (RE's) or in International Units (IU's). (2 sets of Units!!) Several esters of retinol are equally effective and thus are retinol equivalents (RE’s). By definition, 1 RE of retinol = 1 microgram Also by definition, one International unit (IU) of Vitamin A =.3 micrograms retinol Thus 1 RE=3.33 IU’s of Vitamin A

8 IU’s Can apply to all vitamins and always = 0.3 micrograms or 0.3 x10 -6 grams RE’s only apply to Vitamin A (retinol)

9 2 Retinols(A) from 1 beta carotene

10 Metabolism of beta carotene Oxidative cleavage of C=C and reduction to alcohol Carrots etc. lots of beta carotene and eventually an excellent source of Vitamin A

11 Free radical = unpaired electron  very reactive Oxygen radicals: Hydroxy (HO) / Peroxy (HOO) OH.. Free Radicals - the Metabolic Oxidizers

12 Do you smoke?? Each puff contains ~ 10 15 OH radicals Also cyanides (bind to hemoglobin) PNAH’s Try the blow test: exhale through a kleenex and see the tar!

13 What’s in cigarette smoke?

14 An antioxidant is a chemical so easily oxidized itself that it protects others from oxidation. Double Bond eg. Vitamin A Phenol Part of Vitamin E molecule and / or

15 Repel the Enemy !

16 Vitamins - Some Generalities Fat-soluble vitamins can be accumulated in body tissue/organs, eg. liver. Often there can be serious metabolic consequences when ingesting 'mega- doses', ie.10 - 100X the RDI. The water-soluble vitamins are often destroyed by heat/water in the cooking process; also by prolonged storage. Since they are excreted there is usually no danger from 'overdosing' (vit B6!). Diet-related deficiencies do occur in vegans, the elderly and alcoholics Chirality! ie. natural (D or L) vs. synthetic (D/L)

17 Fat-Soluble Vitamins ( A & D)

18 Fat-Soluble Vitamins ( E & K)

19 Water-Soluble Vitamins ( B1 & B5) Thiamine (B 1 ) Pantothenic Acid (B 5 )

20 Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2 & B6)

21 Water-Soluble Vitamins (B3,B7,C &?) Niacin(B3) Biotin(B7) Ascorbic Acid(C) HOCH 2 CH 2 N + (CH 3 ) 3 Choline

22 Natural = Ascorbic Acid = Synthetic

23 Water-Soluble Vitamin (B9)

24 Water-Soluble Vitamin(B12) Cobalamin

25 A - Retinol Uses: vision pigment, good anti-oxidant (heart disease? cancer?) Deficiency: night blindness, (infant mortality) Excess: blurred vision, teratogenic for pregnant women, serious liver disease,skin yellowing Sources: highly coloured vegetables, liver, egg yolks, fish liver oils

26 D - Calciferol Uses: regulates absorption of calcium & phosphorus Deficiency: rickets (bone deformation) Excess: damage to kidneys/tissue due to Calcium 'deposits' Sources: eggs, liver, fish oils, fortified milk, sunshine

27 E - Tocopherol Uses: excellent anti-oxidant (protects cell membranes); skin care Deficiency: rare; (anemia, edema in infants) Excess: 2005 study*** Heart attacks if overused Source: vegetable oils, green vegetables, nuts/seeds, wheat germ, meat Vitamin E is not recommended over and above what is in a multivitamin as of 2005

28 E: the vitamin looking for a disease! Still no well documented evidence for any diseases directly due to its deficiency. Don’t take supplements!

29 K- Phylloquinone Uses: essential cofactor in blood clotting Deficiency: (bruising/bleeding in infants- increased coagulation time) Excess: dangerous if taking anti-coagulants such as ASA Sources: green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale) Cofactor: a small molecule or atom that is required for an enzyme to be active

30 B1- Thiamin Uses: necessary for carbohydrate metabolism Deficiency: nervous system deterioration (beriberi), esp. in Far East because of milled rice Excess: not known Sources: lean meat, legumes, whole grains, in 'fortified' flour since 1940s

31 B2 - Riboflavin Uses: cofactor in much metabolism Deficiency: poor wound healing, breakdown of tissue in mouth/nose Excess: not likely (yellow urine!) Sources: milk, organ meats, fortified cereals

32 Uses: required for all metabolic oxidations (needed by every cell daily!), lowers cholesterol (in excess) Deficiency: deterioration of nervous system & skin (pellagra) Excess: not normal (dizziness, liver damage) Sources: yeasts, meats, legumes, 'enriched' flour B3 - Niacin

33 B5 - Pantothenic Acid Uses: cofactor in fatty acid metabolism Deficiency: not observed Excess: not observed Sources: organ meats, egg yolks, yoghurt, legumes

34 Uses: cofactor in >60 enzymes for a.a. metabolism (the master vitamin!) Deficiency: anemia, nervous disorders (est. in almost 50% of NA women, esp. those on oral contraceptives) Excess: disable nervous system (present in body- building diets) Sources: green leafy vegetables, meats, fruit B6 - Pyridoxine

35 B7 - Biotin Uses: cofactor in synthesis of fatty acids Deficiency: not observed Excess: not observed Sources: liver, egg yolks, nuts, legumes, soy

36 B9 - Folic Acid Uses: cofactor for nucleic acid and heme synthesis Deficiency: some anemias, if during pregnancy the fetus has high probability of spina bifida or other birth defects Excess: possible danger for hormone related cancers Sources: green leafy vegetables, asparagus, organ meats

37 B12 - Cobalamin Uses: controlling factor for pernicious anemia Deficiency: normally rare, but with inability to absorb (>50 and vegans) Excess: not known Sources: animal protein, organ meats, milk, eggs

38 Get your Daily ‘B – Complex’ !

39 Vegans (ovo-lacto vegetarians) Need Vitamin B supplements containing the cobalamin complex or take Brewers Yeast

40 C - Ascorbic Acid Uses: cofactor for collagen production, enhances iron absorption, excellent anti-oxidant Deficiency: scurvy Excess: probably should avoid >1g/day (Linus Pauling advocated up to 3g/day but no proven benefits!) Sources: citrus fruits, potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes

41 Vitamin C - will it cure my cold? > NO, but….30% decrease in upper respiratory tract infections > ~1/3 of all NA ingests Vit.C = tons! > Loses potency when exposed to air (50% less in your OJ after 3 weeks in fridge). > Helps maintain other antioxidants > Smokers need ~twice the RDI/USRDA By 1750 it was known that weekly rations of citrus fruit would prevent scurvy. This fact allowed Britain to 'rule the waves' and for these sailors to be called "limeys". Not isolated until 1928.

42 Phytochemicals - non-nutrient compounds, found in plant-derived foods, that have biological activity in the body. 2009 OJ: packaging “phytonutrients!” Antioxidants (anti-aging/cancer/heart disease?) - catechins (berries, green/black tea), lycopene (tomatoes,watermelon), bioflavanoids (citrus fruit, grapes), coenzyme Q (nuts,oils).

43 Formation of Vitamin D

44 Vitamin A from  Carotene

45 Plant Pigments = Potent Antioxidants Almost 2000 known plant pigments. >800 flavonoids, ~450 carotenoids and ~150 anthocyanins. Red(lycopene) – tomatoes, pink/red grapefruit, watermelon, guava, red peppers. Red/Blue/Purple(anthocyanins) – red/blue grapes, blue-/straw-/raspberries, beets, cherries, egg plant, plums, red cabbage. Orange(carotene) – squash, pumpkin, yams, carrots, mango, cantaloupe.

46 Colour your Nutritional World !

47 Orange/Yellow(cryptoxanthin) – peach, orange, nectarine, papaya. Yellow/Green(lutein, zeaxanthin = especially good for health of eyes) – corn, cucumber skins, yellow/green peppers, green beans/peas, spinach, honeydew melon, kiwi, romaine lettuce, Plant Pigments = Phytochemicals

48 Red, Yellow or Green – It’s all a GO !

49 Had your ORAC Foods Today ? high Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity foods – the top 15(for ~100g/3.5oz) prunes raisins blueberries stawberries raspberries plums oranges red grapes cherries 5770 2830 2400 1540 1220 949 750 739 670 kale spinach sprouts broccoli beets red pepper corn eggplant carrot 1770 1260 980 890 840 710 400 390 210

50 Too Much Broccoli ! Two women with diseases characterized by abnormal blood clotting did not improve when they were given Warfarin. When questioned about their diets, one woman reported that she ate at least a pound of broccoli every day, and the other ate broccoli soup and a broccoli salad every day. When broccoli was removed from their diets, warfarin became effective in preventing the abnormal clotting of their blood. Because broccoli is high in vitamin K, these patients had been getting enough dietary vitamin K to compete with the drug, thereby making the drug ineffective.

51 Vitamin O - the next miracle supplement! Recipe: Take 8oz water, add a pinch of salt, bubble in oxygen/(air?) for 15 seconds then sell for $20(US) + shipping/handling. Or maybe you would like to visit an 'oxygen bar'? Get fined for US$400,000 (for 'fraudulent claims'), change the wording and keep on selling. To-date an estimated 1 million bottles have been sold! Check out the ‘Net’ under ‘vitamin O’ eg. ~first 10 entries on ‘Yahoo’ or ‘Google’

52 Beware the Scam!! Exotic berry/fruit extracts will cure all! Goji Juice (from the Himalayas!)

53 The Master Molecules in Goji Juice

54 CBC “5 th Estate” Aug 31/07 Goji juice expose! Cost is 50$ per liter on sale for 34.95$! “Dr” Earl Mindel has fake credentials MLM approach (Multi-layer marketing)

55 Constituents of Goji Juice Vitamin C Lycopene, carotene, anthocyanine All good, but available from readily available fruits/vegs at a fraction of the price! Buyer beware!!

56 Other exotic berries Now the acai berry! Has 10x the antioxidant properties of grapes and 2x those of blueberries Used for generations by Brazilian jungle dwellers!

57 21 Chief health Benefits of Acai Boosts energy levels, improves digestion, improves mental clarity, promotes sound sleep, provides all “vital” vitamins, contains important minerals, powerful free radical fighter, has high fibre levels, cleans and detoxifies the body, strengthens immune system, enhances sexual desire and performance!, fights cancerous cells, slows down aging, promotes healthier skin, alleviates diabetes!, normalizes cholesterol levels, maintains healthy heart function, minimizes inflamation, improves circulation, prevents atherosclerosis, enhances visual acuity WOW!!

58 But…………. Small print “none of these claims have yet been evaluated by the US FDA” “provides disease fighting benefits no Doctor wants you to know!”

59 Acai Berry Products 60 tablets for 28.95$ Labelling!

60 Conclusions Both goji and acai no doubt are both high on the ORAC scale. But not miracle cures!

61 The “magic” of cranberries Many people are allergic to antibiotics used to treat urinary infections Recent Harvard Study indicates that cranberries contain a compound that prevents E. Coli (Common cause of UI’s) form binding to the wall of the bladder

62 Mechanism of action Presently under study But looks like Proanthocyanodins present in cranberry juice are causing expression of types I and P “Adhesin”, thus preventing adhesion of E Coli. No drug reactions known with cranberry juice

63 A healthy way to start the day Except……..

64 Beware the grapefruit! Juice/fruit inhibits the action of 2 enzymes that are required to break down/metabolize several drugs and make them effective. Including BC pills, cholesterol lowering statins, several antibiotics, Valium, Zoloft And possibly Viagra!

65 New Fads in Drinks: 2009 Vitamin waters $2 for 591mL Enough Vit. C (150mg) (RDA~60mg) Some of B complex present; but not B1 (thiamine ) and B2 (riboflavin);B3-B6OK 120 calories per bottle ( how much sugar??) “non-essential ingredients” water, cane sugar, citric acid, veg juice (for colour), natural flavor

66 Hot Sellers in the Carleton Unicentre store! Many flavours and more on the way!

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