VITAMIN : Suatu kelompok senyawa organik (terdapat dlm jml kecil dlm bahan makanan) tapi sangat penting peranannya bagi beberapa fungsi tubuh, untuk : proses metabolisme pertumbuhan yg normal SENYAWA ORGANIK ESENSIAL tidak dpt dibuat oleh tubuh dlm jml kecil diperoleh dari makanan yang dikonsumsi (kecuali Vitamin D)
Tubuh yg kekurangan vitamin (defisiensi) : AVITAMINOSIS dg gejala macam2 penyakit Tubuh yg kelebihan vitamin : HIPERVITAMINOSIS : akibatnya gangguan kesehatan/dikeluarkan dari tubuh VITAMIN : LARUT DALAM AIR : VITAMIN B & C LARUT DALAM LEMAK (MINYAK) : VITAMIN A,D,E,K, Terdiri dari kumpulan vitamin yg mempunyai fungsi dan sifat yg berbeda/khusus
Vitamin B1 Vitamin B1, also called thiamin is a water- soluble vitamin that is essential for the breakdown of carbohydrates into the simple sugar glucose. Thiamin is also important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Thiamin is found in whole-grain cereals, bread, red meat, egg yolks, green leafy vegetables, legumes, sweet corn, brown rice, berries, and yeast. Thiamin is absorbed through the intestines.
Deficiency of Vitamin B1 Thiamin deficiency is rare. However, thiamin deficiency often occurs in alcoholics. It occurs in alcoholics because alcohol interferes with the absorption of thiamin through the intestines. Thiamin deficiency can cause beriberi, wernicke's encephelopathy, and sensitivity of the teeth, cheeks and gums. Too Much Vitamin B1 Large doses (5,000 to 10,000 mg) can cause headaches, irritability, rapid pulse, and weakness
Vitamin B2 Vitamin B2, also called riboflavin is a water- soluble vitamin that is important in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It is also important in the maintenance of the skin and mucous membranes, the cornea of the eye and for nerve sheaths. Riboflavin is found in whole-grain products, milk, meat, eggs, cheese and peas. Deficiency of Vitamin B2 A deficiency of riboflavin can cause skin disorders, anemia, light-sensitive eyes, and inflammation of the soft tissue lining around the mouth and nose (Cheilosis).
Deficiencies of Vitamin B2 Cheilosis – cracking at the corners of the mouth and inflammation of the muscous membranes in the mouth Glossitis – swollen and reddened tongue Corneal Vascularization – reddening, burning, itching of the eyes and sensitivity to light Seborrheic Dermatitis – unusual dryness and greasy scaling of the skin
Vitamin B3 Vitamin B3, also called niacin, is needed for the metabolism of food, the maintenance of healthy skin, nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. Niacin is found in protein-rich foods. The most common protein rich foods are: meats, fish, brewer's yeast, milk,eggs, legumes, potatoes and peanuts. If too much niacin is consumed, itching, headaches, cramps, nausea and skin eruptions may occur. Vitamin B3 is also called nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.
Deficiency of Vitamin B3 A deficiency of niacin causes the disease, pellagra. Too much Vitamin B3 More than 100mg of vitamin B3 can cause flushing, tingling, itching, headaches, nausea, diarrhea and ulcers. VITAMIN B6 Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is essential in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Pyridoxine is also used in the production of red blood cells.
Pyridoxine is also called pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine. Pyridoxine can be found in many foods. Some of the foods that contain it are: liver, meat, brown rice, fish, butter, wheat germ, whole grain cereals, and soybeans. Deficiency of Vitamin B6 Deficiency of pyridoxine is rare. However, pyridoxine deficiency often occurs in alcoholics. Deficiency causes skin disorders, disruption of the nervous system, confusion, poor coordination and insomnia.
Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism. It is also essential for red blood cell metabolism. The nerve amd immune system need Vitamin B6 to function efficiently, and it is also needed for the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin.
Too much Vitamin B6 More than 500mg can cause irreversible nerve damage. The nerve damage can cause impaired walking, numbness, tingling and poor sense of touch. VITAMIN B12 Vitamin B12 is necessary for processing carbohydrates, proteins and fats and to help make all of the blood cells in our bodies. Vitamin B12 is stored in the liver. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes mouth irritation, brain damage, and a disease called pernicious anemia. Vitamin B12 can be found in liver, meat, egg yolk, poultry and milk.
VITAMIN B12 is also called cobalamin because it contains the meat cobalt. This vitamin helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells. It’s also needed to help make DNA. Vitamin B12 bound to the protein in food. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach release B12 from proteins in foods during digestion. Once released, Vitamin B12 combines with a substance called gastric intrinsic factor. This complex can be absorbed by the intestinal tract.
Vitamin B9 Vitamin B9, also called folic acid, interacts with vitamin B12 for the synthesis of DNA. Folic acid is also necessary for the breakdown of proteins and the formation of hemoglobin. Folic acid is produced by bacteria in the stomach and intestines. Folic acid is found in many foods, including yeast, liver, green vegetables, and whole grain cereals. Women who are pregnant have an increased need for folic acid. High doses of folic acid can cause convulsions, and disrupt zinc absorption.
Deficiency of Vitamin B9 Deficiency of folic acid causes anemia, poor growth, and irritation of the mouth. Deficiency of folic acid is common in alcoholics, the elderly, and people who are malnourished. Folic Acid is also called folacin and pteroylglutamic acid. PANTOTHENIC ACID Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is used in the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids and some amino acids, rather sweet and has the form of calcium salt. Pantothenic acid is produced by bacteria in the intestines. It has function as cofactor of enzyme (coenzyme A) for oxidation process and coenzyme for fat synthesize (sterol)
Pantothenic acid is found in meats, legumes and whole- grain cereals, and ‘royal jelly”. Deficiency of Pantothenic Acid Dermatitis symptoms and intestine Vomiting, hair fall, skin disorders, disruption of the nervous system and adrenalin gland VITAMIN H (BIOTIN) Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin which contains sulfur and valeric acid has the form of Ureido ring It has function as coenzyme for carboxylation, decarboxylation and de-amination process Biotin is found in potatoes, yeast, liver, kidney, vegetables and fruits. It is also produced by bacteria in the intestines.
Vitamin C Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) assists the body in the production of collagen, a basic component of connective tissues. Vitamin C also acts as an antioxidant, scavenging potentially harmful molecules called free radicals, and protect against cancer, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration of the retina, and other chronic diseases. Vitamin C intake may be particularly helpful to smokers, as they are more likely to suffer from oxidative stress and cell damage that can deplete vitamin C. Vitamin C also enhances iron absorption.
Vitamin C may work against high blood pressure (hypertension),. Vitamin C promotes healthy teeth and gums, helps in the absorption of iron, aids in the maintenance of normal connective tissue, and promotes wound healing. It also helps the body's immune system. Vitamin C Deficiency Lack of vitamin C can lead to a condition called scurvy, which causes muscle weakness, swollen and bleeding gums, loss of teeth, and bleeding under the skin, as well as tiredness and depression. Vitamin C deficiency also causes wounds to heal slowly.
Which foods have Vitamin C? Foods that are rich in Vitamin C are broccoli, strawberries, citrus fruits, green peppers, brussels sprouts, honeydew, and cantaloupe. Risks of too much Vitamin C High doses can cause kidney stones, diarrhea and nausea.kidney stones Vitamin C Substance Interactions The effect of vitamin C is decreased by aspirin, tobacco, barbiturates, mineral oil, oral contraceptives, salicylates, sulfa drugs and tetracyclines. Vitamin C will decrease the effect of Anti-cholinergics, oral anticoagulants and copper.