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AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd B3 1 Summary Exchange of materials Chapter review
B3 1 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How do substances move in and out of cells? Diffusion – passive movement of substances along a concentration gradient. Osmosis – movement of water along a concentration gradient through a partially permeable membrane. Active transport – movement of substances against a concentration gradient, or across a partially permeable membrane, using energy produced by respiration.
B3 1 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How are the lungs adapted for effective gas exchange? Breathing movements – good concentration gradient. Alveoli – massive surface area for diffusion. Moist surfaces so gases dissolve for efficient diffusion. Rich blood supply – so concentration gradient maintained. Short distance between alveoli and blood.
B3 1 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How is your gut adapted for the absorption of your food? Large food molecules broken down into small food molecules (digestion). Villi – large surface area for diffusion. Rich blood supply – maintains concentration gradient for diffusion. Short distances for diffusion. Moist surfaces. Active transport of substances.
B3 1 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What adaptations are needed for exchange of gas and solutes in any organism? A large surface area to give plenty of opportunity for substances to diffuse. A way of removing the substances exchanged (e.g. a rich blood supply) to maintain a steep concentration gradient and carry them to where they are needed. Moist surfaces for substances to dissolve. A short distance between the two areas – this makes diffusion as effective as possible.
B3 1 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How are plants adapted for exchange of substances? Leaves: flat and thin for large surface area and short diffusion distances; internal air spaces; stomata to let air in and out. Roots: many tiny roots and root hairs for large surface area; short diffusion distances; active transport to work against concentration gradients. Photo: John Kaprielian
B3 1 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is transpiration and what factors affect it? Temperature. Light levels. Air movements. Carbon dioxide levels.
B4 a-d Pig (F). Name the pores in the bottom of a leaf.
B4 a-d Pig (H). What is the job of air spaces?
© Boardworks Ltd of 44. © Boardworks Ltd of 44.
Mammalian Lungs List the features of the mammalian lung that adapt it to efficient gaseous exchange Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs,
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9.2 Transport in Angiospermophytes Outline how the root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake by means of branching.
Biology The development of internal gas exchange surfaces in larger organisms to maintain adequate rates of exchange. Mammals (alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi,
BIOLOGY TOPIC Outline the wide diversity in the plant kingdom as exemplified by the structural differences between bryophytes, filicinophytes,
IB Biology Gas Exchange IB Biology Ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration. 1. Ventilation: The flow of air in and out of the.
Weekly Announcements No Homework today Notebook Check today Quiz on Cellular Respiration Tuesday Next week Lab on Chlorophyll Monday Next week Test on.
Cells and Their Environment Chapter Passive Transport Part 1: Diffusion Remember: Living things need to maintain homeostasis (responds to external.
Passive Transport Substances cross the cell membrane without the cell expending energy.
Unit Plant Science. Problem Area Managing Plant Growth.
The Cell in Action Guided Notes. What you should already know… Cell membrane – a phospholipid layer that covers a cells surface; acts as a barrier between.
GAS EXCHANGE BonyFish. Specialised Exchange Surface Bony fish have a small surface area to volume ratio for gas exchange. They have an impermeable membrane.
Membrane Transport AS Biology. Diffusion Powered by random movement of molecules in a solution Net movement is from regions of high concentration to low.
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