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Pg 547 LDH converts pyruvate to lactate, restoring the pool of NAD +

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Presentation on theme: "Pg 547 LDH converts pyruvate to lactate, restoring the pool of NAD +"— Presentation transcript:

1 pg 547 LDH converts pyruvate to lactate, restoring the pool of NAD +

2 pg 547 What about when pyruvate leaves the cytoplasm…? ?

3

4 Glycerol 3-P shuttle fig19-30

5 Malate-aspartate shuttle fig19-29

6 Malate-aspartate shuttle

7 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process OAA malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD +

8 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD + OAA Asp  KG Glu

9 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD + OAA

10 with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu OAA Asp  KG Glu

11 with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu OAA Asp  KG Glu

12 with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu OAA Asp  KG Glu NH 3 group from Asp to  KG NH 3 group from Glu to OAA

13 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD + OAA Asp  KG Glu

14 Malate-aspartate shuttle fig19-29

15

16 coupling is… chemiosmotic

17 e- flow is coupled to ATP production

18 ACCEPTOR CONTROL fig19-33 bottom Why does limited ADP decrease the rate of resp. chain? or…

19 low ADP NADH fig19-33 middle NADH and ATP/ADP levels directly affect the Krebs cycle…

20 ADP ATP fig19-33 middle NADH and ATP/ADP levels directly affect the Krebs cycle…

21 fig19-33 top and glycolysis is similarly affected by ATP citrate and NADH

22 fig19-33 the whole darn thing… regulation of all three phases of glucose break- down: a combination of effects of a number of molecules, including NADH, ATP, citrate, acetyl-CoA

23 fig19-34 Nature’s electric blanket use of uncoupling for a biological purpose

24 The “new” field of mitochondrial medicine mitochondrial roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death) diabetes ageing Parkinsonism

25 part II intro fig4 Anabolism!!!

26 fig 14-15 Carbohydrate synthesis in the biosphere

27 Gluconeogenesis anabolic production of glucose

28 fig 14-16 Carbohydrates a two-lane highway… what determines these special steps?

29 The glycolysis energy landscape (pyruvate set to 0)

30 Three big steps down… or up table 14-2

31 fig 14-17 First bypass

32 fig 14-17 First bypass

33 fig 14-17 First bypass, second step

34 fig 14-19 Two ways to make PEP…

35 fig 15-20 two fates for pyruvate

36 table 14-4

37 fig 14-16 top Three big steps on the way up…

38 fig 15-15 Remember regulation of PFK-1??

39 Fructose bisphosphate is at a key position in both cat and ana

40 fig15-16 When glucose is abundant, so is F2,6BP F2,6BP accelerates PFK-1

41 fig 15-16 When glucose is low, so is F2,6BP F2,6BP inhibits FBPase

42 fig 15-16 When glucose is low, so is F2,6BP When glucose is abundant, so is F2,6BP

43 pg 581

44 fig 15-17 Separate distinct enzyme activities control Fr2,6BP levels

45 fig 15-17 …and hormones control these enzymes

46 Glycogen: the glucose buffer…

47 Glycogen granules ~ 1600 glucose monomers per granule

48 fig 7-14

49 Glycogen in real life…

50 How is glycogen synthesized? -sequential addition of glucose to a growing  1-4 linked linear polymer -creation of branches composed of  1-6 linkages glycogenin, then glycogen synthase branching enzyme

51 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 reducing end non- reducing end Glucose ends…

52 polymer ends… fig 7-14

53 pg 597

54 fig 15-29 addition of UDP carrier to glucose-1-P

55 fig 15-30 addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen chain

56 fig 15-31 Glycogen branching enzyme creates branches

57 fig 15-9 Glycogen branching enzyme creates branches 10  1 4 3 7  1 6  1 4

58 How is glycogen broken down? -sequential removal of glucose-1P from the non-reducing end -dismantling of those pesky branches glycogen phosphorylase debranching enzyme

59 fig 14-11

60 fig 15-26 debranching enzyme removes branches

61 4 4  1 6  1 4 7 1  1 6 7  1 4 free glucose Debranching enzyme removes branches transferase activity  1-6 glucosidase

62 fig 15-36 Allosteric control of glycogen phosphorylase

63 Hormonal control of glycogen phosphorylase fig 15-34

64 fig 15-37 regulation of glycogen synthase by phos- phorylation as well…

65 fig 23-13 Liver glucose metabolism

66 Blood glucose level is critical and stringently regulated fig 23-23

67 fig 23-20 The Cori cycle

68 Liver as a "glucostat" high blood glucose low blood glucose

69 Glucagon: the hormone of starvation phosphorylation of enzymes alteration of fructose 2,6 bis P

70 Insulin: the hormone of plenty

71

72 fig 23-24


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