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Pg 547 LDH converts pyruvate to lactate, restoring the pool of NAD +

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Presentation on theme: "Pg 547 LDH converts pyruvate to lactate, restoring the pool of NAD +"— Presentation transcript:

1 pg 547 LDH converts pyruvate to lactate, restoring the pool of NAD +

2 pg 547 What about when pyruvate leaves the cytoplasm…? ?

3

4 Glycerol 3-P shuttle fig19-30

5 Malate-aspartate shuttle fig19-29

6 Malate-aspartate shuttle

7 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process OAA malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD +

8 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD + OAA Asp  KG Glu

9 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD + OAA

10 with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu OAA Asp  KG Glu

11 with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu OAA Asp  KG Glu

12 with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu OAA Asp  KG Glu NH 3 group from Asp to  KG NH 3 group from Glu to OAA

13 Malate-aspartate shuttle viewed as e- carrying process with set of transaminations between OAA/Asp, and aKG/Glu malate NADH NAD + NADH NAD + OAA Asp  KG Glu

14 Malate-aspartate shuttle fig19-29

15

16 coupling is… chemiosmotic

17 e- flow is coupled to ATP production

18 ACCEPTOR CONTROL fig19-33 bottom Why does limited ADP decrease the rate of resp. chain? or…

19 low ADP NADH fig19-33 middle NADH and ATP/ADP levels directly affect the Krebs cycle…

20 ADP ATP fig19-33 middle NADH and ATP/ADP levels directly affect the Krebs cycle…

21 fig19-33 top and glycolysis is similarly affected by ATP citrate and NADH

22 fig19-33 the whole darn thing… regulation of all three phases of glucose break- down: a combination of effects of a number of molecules, including NADH, ATP, citrate, acetyl-CoA

23 fig19-34 Nature’s electric blanket use of uncoupling for a biological purpose

24 The “new” field of mitochondrial medicine mitochondrial roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death) diabetes ageing Parkinsonism

25 part II intro fig4 Anabolism!!!

26 fig Carbohydrate synthesis in the biosphere

27 Gluconeogenesis anabolic production of glucose

28 fig Carbohydrates a two-lane highway… what determines these special steps?

29 The glycolysis energy landscape (pyruvate set to 0)

30 Three big steps down… or up table 14-2

31 fig First bypass

32 fig First bypass

33 fig First bypass, second step

34 fig Two ways to make PEP…

35 fig two fates for pyruvate

36 table 14-4

37 fig top Three big steps on the way up…

38 fig Remember regulation of PFK-1??

39 Fructose bisphosphate is at a key position in both cat and ana

40 fig15-16 When glucose is abundant, so is F2,6BP F2,6BP accelerates PFK-1

41 fig When glucose is low, so is F2,6BP F2,6BP inhibits FBPase

42 fig When glucose is low, so is F2,6BP When glucose is abundant, so is F2,6BP

43 pg 581

44 fig Separate distinct enzyme activities control Fr2,6BP levels

45 fig …and hormones control these enzymes

46 Glycogen: the glucose buffer…

47 Glycogen granules ~ 1600 glucose monomers per granule

48 fig 7-14

49 Glycogen in real life…

50 How is glycogen synthesized? -sequential addition of glucose to a growing  1-4 linked linear polymer -creation of branches composed of  1-6 linkages glycogenin, then glycogen synthase branching enzyme

51 O reducing end non- reducing end Glucose ends…

52 polymer ends… fig 7-14

53 pg 597

54 fig addition of UDP carrier to glucose-1-P

55 fig addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen chain

56 fig Glycogen branching enzyme creates branches

57 fig 15-9 Glycogen branching enzyme creates branches 10   1 6  1 4

58 How is glycogen broken down? -sequential removal of glucose-1P from the non-reducing end -dismantling of those pesky branches glycogen phosphorylase debranching enzyme

59 fig 14-11

60 fig debranching enzyme removes branches

61 4 4  1 6    1 4 free glucose Debranching enzyme removes branches transferase activity  1-6 glucosidase

62 fig Allosteric control of glycogen phosphorylase

63 Hormonal control of glycogen phosphorylase fig 15-34

64 fig regulation of glycogen synthase by phos- phorylation as well…

65 fig Liver glucose metabolism

66 Blood glucose level is critical and stringently regulated fig 23-23

67 fig The Cori cycle

68 Liver as a "glucostat" high blood glucose low blood glucose

69 Glucagon: the hormone of starvation phosphorylation of enzymes alteration of fructose 2,6 bis P

70 Insulin: the hormone of plenty

71

72 fig 23-24


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