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1 Address Selection, Failure Detection and Recovery in MULTI6 draft-arkko-multi6dt-failure-detection-00.txt Multi6 Design Team -- Jari Arkko, Marcelo Bagnulo,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Address Selection, Failure Detection and Recovery in MULTI6 draft-arkko-multi6dt-failure-detection-00.txt Multi6 Design Team -- Jari Arkko, Marcelo Bagnulo,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Address Selection, Failure Detection and Recovery in MULTI6 draft-arkko-multi6dt-failure-detection-00.txt Multi6 Design Team -- Jari Arkko, Marcelo Bagnulo, Geoff Huston, Erik Nordmark, Margaret Wasserman, Iljitsch van Beijnum, Jukka Ylitalo

2 2 Presentation Outline Background Addresses Interfaces to other components Reachability Principles of failure detection Principles of alternative search A sketch of a protocol Design decisions Architectural issues

3 3 Background

4 4 MULTI6 design team work HIP multihoming work MOBIKE multihoming work What SCTP has done Movement detection in mobility protocols Host address configuration mechanisms

5 5 Addresses

6 6 Multihoming Basics There’s more than one path for traffic Typically, multiple prefixes for some of the participants Observations: Multiple addresses on one or both end hosts Nodes should know about their own addresses And learn about the peer’s addresses over the MULTI6 protocol Need to know the peer’s addresses before a failure -- otherwise you might not be able to communicate with the peer

7 7 Node’s Own Addresses -- Where Do They Come From? Addresses come from the other parts of the stack –The addresses are typically configured through protocols such as DHCP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery –Processes related to addresses are not trivial -- Duplicate Address Detection, valid/deprecated, scoping,... –Relationship to what the rest of the IP layer does (e.g. Router Discovery) or what the L2 does (e.g., attachment)

8 8 Node’s Own Addresses -- Where Do They Go To? Addresses are taken away by the same mechanisms

9 9 Addresses -- What is their Status? Security: we need to believe what the configuration mechanisms tell us –If an address is no longer usable, we need to believe it –Address allocation can be secure (but often not turned on); Nevertheless, M6 has nothing else to rely on either, so an address given to it should be considered at least as a candidate Even if an address is assigned to an interface, it is not guaranteed that you will actually be able to use it –Link temporarily broken –Router down –Etc

10 10 A Few Address-Related Definitions Available address Address is assigned to an interface The address is valid (in IPv6) and has completed uniqueness tests Locally operational address Address is available L2 green light is on Default router is reachable (IPv6 NUD)

11 11 Interfaces to Related Modules An obvious set of “configuration” modules and protocols that handle address assignment and deletion and other related tasks A growing body of work for improving the characteristics related to changing connectivity at the “lower layer” -- e.g. DNA WG –DNA WG: draft-ietf-dna-goals-03.txt –DHC WG: draft-ietf-dhc-dna-ipv4-09.txt

12 12 Reachability

13 13 Are Two Locally Operational Addresses Enough? host1host2 RR (broken) Answer: No cnn. com (Not even if you can talk to someone else)

14 14 The Definition of an Address Pair Address pair A pair of addresses (src, dst) used in communications between two peers Operational address pair Both addresses are locally operational Traffic flows when the pair is used

15 15 Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Address Pair Reachability host1host2 RR Note that reachability may not always be two-way… Host1 should send from p to r, host2 from s to q Ping would never work here! RR (=> only) (<= only) p q r s

16 16 Detection and Search

17 17 Selecting an Address How do we know there is a problem? –The address went away (certain) –Explicit test failed (certain…but might be a transient problem) –Lack of TCP progress, ICMP, … (hmm...) Picking another pair –SCTP has some of the functionality –No other existing protocols for finding operational address pairs –Multi6, hip, and mobike looking at this

18 18 Picking Another Address Pair The selection should not itself cause a new problem by congestion If a site link goes down, it would be a bad idea for all hosts in the site to suddenly start a cartesian ping bomb All hosts must obey exponential back-off while searching Downside: –4 addresses on both sides, 0.1 start timeout –exponential back-off would take 3200 seconds! Suggestion: either this or a slight relaxation

19 19 Picking Another Address Pair, Cont’d As a result, the order at which you try things out is important Nodes may have their own preferences about which addresses or paths to use Some information about peer’s preferences can be transferred within the protocol For the rest, a number of heuristics can apply to the order –Example: an address that worked 30 seconds ago would be a useful candidate to try Suggestion: Leave details to implementations

20 20 Picking Another Address Pair, Cont’d Testing for bidirectional reachability is easy Testing for unidirectional reachability is harder Reachability may depend on packet! –Multi6 protocol vs. PING –Multi6 protocol vs. payload packet –Significant?

21 21 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | A decides that it has a problem

22 22 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | | Poll 1 (src=A1, dst=B1) | | >| | |

23 23 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | | Poll 1 (src=A1, dst=B1) | | >| | | B sees that apparently A has a problem, starts the same process

24 24 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | | Poll 1 (src=A1, dst=B1) | | >| | | | Poll 2 (src=B1, dst=A1) OK: 1 | | X | | |

25 25 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | | Poll 1 (src=A1, dst=B1) | | >| | | | Poll 2 (src=B1, dst=A1) OK: 1 | | X | | | | Poll 3 (src=A2, dst=B1) | | X | | |

26 26 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | | Poll 1 (src=A1, dst=B1) | | >| | | | Poll 2 (src=B1, dst=A1) OK: 1 | | X | | | | Poll 3 (src=A2, dst=B1) | | X | | | | Poll 4 (src=B2, dst=A1) OK: 1 | |< | | |

27 27 Finding Pairs -- Unidirectional Case Peer A Peer B | | | Poll 1 (src=A1, dst=B1) | | >| | | | Poll 2 (src=B1, dst=A1) OK: 1 | | X | | | | Poll 3 (src=A2, dst=B1) | | X | | | | Poll 4 (src=B2, dst=A1) OK: 1 | |< | | | | Poll 5 (src=A1, dst=B1) OK: 4 | | >|

28 28 Design Decisions

29 29 Some Suggested Design Principles Multi6 should not venture in to the area of the configuration modules or protocols -- we shall not reinvent DHCP, and we shall believe what ND tells us Own addresses learned locally, peer addresses are communicated Search procedures need to apply some form of exponential back-off Multi6 only works as a fail-over, at least for now –No load balancing (would cause problems to TCP) –No selection of “best” path (harder than “a working” path) No mandated search order, no application input on “primary” or “backup” connection

30 30 Some Open Design Principles Do we need to support unidirectional reachability? –It complicates the protocols –Many failure modes cause unidirectional reachability, particularly given ingress filtering Is there any limitation in the scope of addresses allowed? –Statistically unique site-locals should work as well as global addresse with MULTI6

31 31 Some Architectural Issues

32 32 Some Architectural Issues Division of work between configuration / lower-layer modules and MULTI6 Some cross-layer communication is needed: –ULP progress information helps failure detection (similar to what IPv6 NUD already needs) –The multihoming layer needs to inform ULPs that a slow start is needed after we have switched to a new adderss Division of work between MULTI6 and transport/application layers –Reachability information at MULTI6 or transport layers –Congestion information at transport layer –Application requirements for what is an acceptable connection


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