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Financial and Managerial Accounting John J. Wild Third Edition John J. Wild Third Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Presentation on theme: "Financial and Managerial Accounting John J. Wild Third Edition John J. Wild Third Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Financial and Managerial Accounting John J. Wild Third Edition John J. Wild Third Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 19 Variable Costing and Performance Reporting

3 19-3 Conceptual Learning Objectives C1: Distinguish between absorption costing and variable costing. C2: Describe how absorption costing can result in over-production. C3: Explain the role of variable costing in pricing special orders.

4 19-4 A1: Analyze income reporting for both absorption and variable costing. A2: Compute and interpret breakeven volume in units. Analytical Learning Objectives

5 19-5 P1: Compute unit cost under both absorption and variable costing. P2: Prepare an income statement using absorption costing and using variable costing. P3: Prepare a contribution margin report. P4: Convert income under variable costing to the absorption cost basis. Procedural Learning Objectives

6 19-6 Absorption costing (also called full costing), assumes that products absorb all costs incurred to produce them. While widely used for financial reporting (GAAP), this costing method can result in misleading product cost information for business decisions. Absorption costing (also called full costing), assumes that products absorb all costs incurred to produce them. While widely used for financial reporting (GAAP), this costing method can result in misleading product cost information for business decisions. Absorption Costing & Variable Costing C1

7 19-7 Absorption Costing & Variable Costing Under variable costing, only costs that change in total with changes in production level are included in product costs. C1

8 19-8 Distinguishing Between Absorption Costing and Variable Costing: Absorption Costing Absorption Costing Direct Materials Direct Labor Variable Overhead Fixed Overhead Product Cost C1

9 19-9 Distinguishing Between Absorption Costing and Variable Costing: Variable Costing Variable Costing Direct Materials Direct Labor Variable Overhead Fixed Overhead Product CostPeriod Cost C1

10 19-10 Difference Between Absorption Costing and Variable Costing: Computing Unit Cost P1

11 19-11 Difference Between Absorption Costing and Variable Costing: Computing Unit Cost P1

12 19-12 Analysis of Income Reporting for Both Absorption and Variable Costing A1

13 19-13 Analysis of Income Reporting for Absorption Costing: Units Produced Equal Units Sold A1 P2 Notice that the net income is $580,000

14 19-14 Analysis of Income Reporting for Variable Costing: Units Produced Equal Units Sold A1 P2

15 19-15 Analysis of Income Reporting for Variable Costing: Units Produced Equal Units Sold A1 P2 We can see that the income under variable costing is also $580,000. This is because the number of units produced are equal to the number of units sold.

16 19-16 Analysis of Income Reporting for Both Absorption and Variable Costing: Units Produced Equal Units Sold A1

17 19-17 Analysis of Income Reporting for Absorption Costing: Units Produced Exceed Units Sold A1 P2

18 19-18 Analysis of Income Reporting for Absorption Costing: Units Produced Exceed Units Sold A1 P2 Income for 2008 is $320,000

19 19-19 Analysis of Income Reporting for Variable Costing: Units Produced Exceed Units Sold A1 P2

20 19-20 Analysis of Income Reporting for Variable Costing: Units Produced Exceed Units Sold A1 P2 Under variable costing, the net income is only $120,000

21 19-21 Analysis of Income Reporting for Variable Costing: Units Produced Exceed Units Sold A1 P2 Under absorption costing,$200,000 of fixed overhead is allocated to the 20,000 units in ending inventory and is not expensed until future periods. Variable costing expenses the entire $600,000 of fixed overhead.

22 19-22 Analysis of Income Reporting for Both Absorption and Variable Costing: Units Produced Exceed Units Sold A1

23 19-23 Analysis of Income Reporting for Absorption Costing: Units Produced Are Less Than Units Sold A1 P2 Income is now $840,000

24 19-24 Analysis of Income Reporting for Variable Costing: Units Produced Are Less Than Units Sold A1 P2 Income under variable costing is $1,040,000

25 19-25 Analysis of Income Reporting for Both Absorption and Variable Costing: Units Produced Are Less Than Units Sold A1

26 19-26 Income Reporting Summarized A1

27 19-27 Planning Production C2 Producing too much inventory Excess inventory Higher storage and financing costs Greater risk of obsolescence Producing too little inventory Lost sales Customer dissatisfaction

28 19-28 Planning Production C2

29 19-29 Planning Production: Income Under Absorption Costing for Different Production Levels C2 Exhibit 19.9

30 19-30 Planning Production: Income Under Absorption Costing for Different Production Levels C2 Exhibit 19.10

31 19-31 Planning Production: Income Under Absorption Costing for Different Production Levels C2 Why is income under absorption costing affected by the production level when that for variable costing is not? The answer lies in the different treatment of fixed overhead costs for the two method.

32 19-32 Setting Prices Over the Long Run: Price must be high enough to cover all costs, including variable costs and fixed costs, and still provide an acceptable return to owners C3

33 19-33 Setting Prices Over the Short Run: Fixed production costs such as the cost to maintain plant capacity do not change with changes in production levels. With excess capacity, increases in production level would increase variable production costs, but not fixed costs. While managers try to maintain the long-run price on existing orders, which covers all production costs, managers should accept special orders provided the special order price exceeds variable cost. C3

34 19-34 Setting Prices C3

35 19-35 Contribution Margin Report P3 Contribution margin is the excess of sales over total variable expenses Contribution margin contributes to covering fixed costs and earning income

36 19-36 Contribution Margin Report P3 The Contribution Margin Ratio is contribution margin divided by sales

37 19-37 Limitations of Reports Using Variable Costing P3 Absorption costing is almost exclusively used for external reporting (GAAP). For income tax purposes, absorption costing is the only acceptable basis for filings with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) under the Tax Reform Act of Absorption costing is the only acceptable basis for both external reporting and tax reporting.

38 19-38 Converting Reports Under Variable Costing to Absorption Costing P4

39 19-39 Calculating Break-Even We can use the data in the following contribution margin format for IceAge to help us determine break-even point. A2

40 19-40 Calculating Break-Even Break-Even Volume in Units = Total Fixed Costs Contribution Margin per Unit Where: Contribution margin per unit = Sales price per unit – Variable cost per unit A2

41 19-41 Calculating Break-Even A2 Precision Tech’s Break-Even Volume in Units Total fixed costs CM per unit = $800,000 $23 per unit = 34,783 units

42 19-42 End of Chapter 19


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