# 33 CHAPTER BASIC APPLICATION SOFTWARE. © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-2 Announcement: QUIZ#02 In Lecture Session # 9 (5.

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33 CHAPTER BASIC APPLICATION SOFTWARE

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-2 Announcement: QUIZ#02 In Lecture Session # 9 (5 th Week- 1 st Lecture) Contents: Lecture slides (Lec#5 – Lec#8) Text book (Computing Essentials 2004) Chapter 2 (spreadsheet details) Note: Students are advised to bring PENCILS essentially

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-3 Lecture Objectives Explaining Spreadsheet Functions Use of Function Wizard Use of Cell/ Range Naming in Spreadsheet Functions Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Financial Functions Logical Functions Math/ Statistical Function Lookup & Reference Functions Data/ Time Functions

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-5 Spreadsheet Functions A function is a calculation shortcut to some (possibly, complex) formula. Every function is based upon some predefined formula, working behind the scene. Functions allow the users to avoid the mathematical details of complex calculations. For Example: Function =SUM(A1,A2,A3) is based upon the sum formula =A1+A2+A3.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-6 Spreadsheet Functions Components Function Syntax Function name (spelling), Right order of different function parts (argument sequence.) Proper use of comma, parentheses and other punctuations. Function Arguments (parameters) The values/ cell references, the function needs to work upon for result calculation. Number of arguments could be fixed or unlimited depending upon the nature of the function used. Function Result Every function results only in one value.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-7 Spreadsheet Functions Components General Function Syntax Function Name( argument1, argument2, ………) Function Examples Function with variable number of arguments SUM(A1, A2, A3) - adding 3 values SUM(A1, A2, A3,A4,A5) – adding 5 values Function with fixed number of arguments SQRT(A1) – finding the square root for A1 ROUND(A1,2) – return the decimal value in A1 with 2 digits after decimal point.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-8 Use of Functions in Spreadsheet Programs Microsoft Excel Similar in use as a formula (must start with =). Can be extended to a formula by using operators & other operands. =SUM(A1,A2,A3)/3.0 -calculating average of 3 values. =AVERAGE(A1:A3) – calculating average of A1, A2 & A3. Lotus 1-2-3 Must start with @. @SUBTOTAL(C3..C5) -calculating total of C3, C4 & C5.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-9 Use of Cell Ranges in Function Arguments Cell ranges is a shortcut for specifying multiple contiguous cells by one concise expression. General Syntax: [Beginning Cell] [Separator] [Ending Cell] Where Beginning Cell reference can not have a higher value of row or column when compared with the Ending Cell. Separator character may be different in different spreadsheet packages. Microsoft Excel Separator = : Lotus 1-2-3 Separator =..

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-10 ….Use of Cell Ranges Examples (Valid & Invalid Cell Range Expressions in Microsoft Excel) C1:C5 Valid, all cells in the column C between row 1 & 5 (5 cells). C5: C1 Invalid, first cell (C5) is greater than the last one (C1) in rows. A1: C5 Valid, include all cells in the square region A1 till C5.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-11 ….Use of Cell Ranges Examples (Microsoft Excel) Sheet1:Sheet3!A1 Valid, includes cell A1 from Sheet1, Sheet2 & Sheet3. Sheet1!A1 : Sheet3!A1 Invalid syntax. Sheet1:Sheet3!A1:A3 Valid, includes cells A1:A3 from all 3 sheets (9 cells) Using 3D Sheet Reference in Microsoft Excel [Beginning Sheet] : [Ending Sheet] ! [Cell Range]

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-12 Using Function in Microsoft Excel Microsoft Excel provides an easy to use interface for using functions. Paste Function Window Categorizes the big function list into smaller sub-lists. Alphabetically ordered. Provides help while selecting arguments.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-13 Naming Cells & Cell Ranges While writing formulas, meaningful cell names are more desirable than their coded references. =unit_price * no_of_units - easier to understand =A3 * B5 – difficult to interpret. How to define names? (Microsoft Excel) Position the cursor on the cell OR select the cell range. Go to name box. Write the meaningful name to be used. Names could be given to Single cells Contiguous cells Non- contiguous cells

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-14..Naming Cells & Cell Ranges Examples of Cell Naming in Microsoft Excel Single Cell Contiguous Range C4:C7, Name= Quiz1Scores

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-15 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Microsoft Excel provides a long list of functions in different application areas like finance, statistics, trigonometry etc. Math & Trigonometry – Functions implementing useful mathematical & Trigonometry formulas. RAND( ) ● Returns a random value between 0 and 1. ROUND( X, Y) ● Returns the value X with Y digits after decimal point. SIN( X )● Returns the Sin for X. Examples: =RAND( )0.102938421 0.345809321 =ROUND( 12.4352, 3)12.435=SIN( PI( )/3 )0.8660254037 Automatic Recalculation

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-16 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Statistical - Functions used to give summary information about a collection of values. COUNT( X:Y )● Returns the count of numerical values in the X:Y. AVERAGE( X:Y)● Returns the mean value in the list X:Y. STDEV( X:Y)● Returns the standard deviation of the list X:Y Examples: =COUNT( A1:A5)4=AVERAGE(A1:A5)5.5=STDEV(A1:A5) Skip the non- numeric values in the list.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-17 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Financial – Functions for financial calculations. PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type) Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate. FV(rate, nper, pmt, pv, type) Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payment and a constant interest rate.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-18 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Logical Functions - IF( logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false) Checks whether a condition is met, and returns one value if TRUE, and another value if FALSE. AND( logical1, logical2, ….) Checks whether all arguments are TRUE, and returns TRUE if all arguments are TRUE. OR( logical1, logical2, ….) Checks whether any of the arguments are TRUE, and returns TRUE or FALSE. Returns FALSE only if all arguments are FALSE.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-19 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Logical Function Examples: IF Function AND Function =IF(Age>60, “Retired”, “Back to work”) =IF( AND(Math>75, English>75) “Distinction”, “Average”) Distinction Average Retired Back to work

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-20 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Logical Function Examples: Nested IF Functions ● for more than two alternatives. =IF(Age>60, “Retired”, IF (Age>50, “Close”, ”Still Young”) ) RetiredClose Still Young

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-21 Use of IF with other functions COUNTIF Count only those cells which fulfill some criterion SUMIF Sum only those cells which fulfill some criterion

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-22 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Lookup & Reference Functions: Functions in this category implements the process of selecting a value from a list of values on the basis of some condition A large number of conditions may need to be checked (may require a very complex nested IF ) Example: A list of grade letters are available to be assigned in a course The selection of a grade letter will be based upon a test on the final score value. The score may need to be tested for a number of different score values corresponding to different grade letters. The functions useful in the scenario will be –LOOKUP, VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-23 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Text Functions - Used to manipulate text values. CONCATENATE( text1, text2,…) ● Returns a combination of all text values. LEFT(text1, n) ● Returns first n characters starting from left most character. Examples: =CONCATANATE( A2, A3)MIS105=LEFT( A4, 3)KFU

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-24 Function Examples in Microsoft Excel Date & Time Functions - Used to manipulate date and time values. TODAY( ) ● Returns a serial number which represents today’s date. YEAR( serial_number ) ● Returns the year corresponding to the serial number (date value) Examples: =TODAY()3/4/2002=YEAR ( TODAY() )2002

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-25 Announcement: QUIZ#02 In Lecture Session # 9 (5 th Week- 1 st Lecture) Contents: Lecture slides (Lec#5 – Lec#8) Text book (Computing Essentials 2004) Chapter 2 (spreadsheet details) Note: Students are advised to bring PENCILS essentially