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Expanding the Capabilities and Use of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Amit J. Mokashi and Richard D. Stewart 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Expanding the Capabilities and Use of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Amit J. Mokashi and Richard D. Stewart 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Expanding the Capabilities and Use of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Amit J. Mokashi and Richard D. Stewart 1

2 Scope & Motivation CFIRE project on mining AIS data (RI-4). UWS tasks: – to review literature on use of AIS – prepare write up on why AIS was developed and original intended uses – prepare case studies of current uses of AIS 2

3 The Sailboats of Ancient Mesopotamia 2000 – 3000 BC 3

4 Thomas W. Lawson 1902 4

5 Compass Ancient Chinese Compass 4 th Century BC Modern Chinese Compass 5

6 Sextant Ancient Arab Sextant 9 th Century Modern Sextant 6

7 Other Navigational Aids NRL's XAF “flying bedspring” Radar 1938 Decca Navigator System 1945 7

8 Other Navigational Aids LORANGPS 8

9 Limitations of Legacy Navigation Aids Lack of two-way communication – Communication of ship’s position to other vessels/entities has to be done by traditional VHF Increased risk of error due to bad communication Inadequate support for Search-and-Rescue – Radar-SART (Search And Rescue Transponder) requires continuous updates for a rescuer to lock- on to. 9

10 S-Curves of Innovation Applied to Navigation Aids One-way Communicating Two-way Communicating Foster, R.N., Innovation: The attacker's advantage. Vol. 152. 1986: Summit Books New York. Performance Effort (Time/Funds) Compass Sextant Radar Decca LORAN GPS AIS 10

11 AIS Performance Standards MSC.74(69) Annex 3 AIS functional requirements: Efficient navigation of ships – Collision avoidance Protection of the environment – Information about ship and cargo Operation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) – Static, dynamic & voyage data 11

12 AIS Time-division Multiple Access (TDMA) 12

13 AIS Limitations Human Element – Garbage in - Garbage out (Gi-Go) Default, inaccurate, vague, flippant data entries – Improper technical setup – Intentional (hacking) /unintentional (TV) interference with GPS signal used by AIS – Policy & management issues Frequency allocation, enforcement & data sharing 13

14 AIS Limitations Technical – Limits of propagation due to earth’s curvature 50nm (Shore stations) 20nm (Ships) – Limits of TDMA technology (slot collision) – AIS Receiver with VHF antenna required Limited portability – Inherited limitations of positioning system GNSS satellite geometry Can source location data using other means 14

15 Expanding Capabilities of AIS Satellite – AIS (S-AIS) – Overcomes the range limitation of AIS – Some service providers use own satellites (exactEarth and LuxSpace) other source data from them or governments. – Data can be augmented by feed from other sources such as Long-Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and Space-based Radar (e.g. RADARSAT) 15

16 Satellite - AIS 16

17 Expanding Capabilities of AIS Web-based Access to AIS Data (WebVTS) – Live streaming – Free & subscription based services – Improvement in coverage using novel approaches Free sharing of AIS data in lieu of installation of AIS receiver 17

18 Expanded Uses of AIS Vessel Monitoring – Extension of AIS role from coastal to remote – Silent VTS – Traffic analysis – Risk assessment Security – Faster response for security triggered by lack AIS signal – Anomalies in vessel behavior – Risk assessment Environment – Monitoring of sensitive & protected areas – Identification of source and severity of incidence – Calculation of footprint – Risk assessment Search and Rescue – Especially with S-AIS – Last known vessel position – GPS fed AIS–SART as an alternative to RADAR-SART – “Reward” assessment 18

19 Survey of AIS Data Service Providers’ Users 21/48 responses Pilots Vessel Operators Hobbyist Academics Aquariums Bunker Providers Regulators (Federal/State/Local) Law Enforcers Ports Freight Shippers Environmental NGOs Weather Bureaus Defense Agencies Counter Piracy Customs Search & Rescue Operators Fisheries Accident/Oil Spill Investigators 19

20 Concluding Observations Growing diversity and numbers of users and uses of AIS Expect increasing capability and reduced cost of AIS units as the technology matures Understanding new capabilities would lead to identification of new opportunities Above points should result in better value/$ for users leading to further adoption even amongst vessel types not mandated leading to even higher value to all users. 20

21 Acknowledgements CFIRE consortium Survey respondents Student Research Assistants Mr. Chandler Smith of exactEarth Anonymous reviewers 21

22 Citations 1. FleetMon. Satellite AIS - space-borne vessel tracking. JPEG 2013; Available from: 2. exactEarth. exactEarth provides a complete picture for global shipping. 2012; Available from: 3. ORBCOMM. Image showing 1 million AIS data points ND [cited 2013; 42 KB JPEG]. Available from: 4. LuxSpace. Global Ship Density (mean value). 2010 09/27/2010; Available from: 5. IMO, IMO's 50th anniversary: Shipping and the Oceans, in World Maritime Day 1988, International Maritime Organization. p. 15. 6. USMMA, Department of Shipboard Training Sea Year Guide, U.S.M.M. Academy, Editor 2012. p. 112. 7. Chen, D.W., Navy Cadets Won't Discard Their Sextants, in The New York Times1998, The New York Times Company: New York. 8. Ferree, J. Radar Limitations. 1999 [cited 2013 11/04/2013]; Available from: 9. Mummert, F. Radar Limitations. 2007 [cited 2013 10/27/2013]; Available from: 10. SiiTech Inc. AIS Overview. 2010 [cited 2013 10/27/2013]; Available from: 11. Leica, The Complete Guide to Automatic Identification Systems, 2001, Leica Geosystems Inc. p. 25. 12. Mate, S., Navigational Incidents and Collisions are Increasing, in Standard Safety2012, Charles Taylor & Co. Limited: London England. p. 10. 13. Arslan, O. and I.D. Er, Effects of Fatigue on Navigation Officers and SWOT Analyze for Reducing Fatigue Related Human Errors on Board. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 2007. 1(3): p. 345-349. 14. Radio Holland. AIS-SART - The future Search and Rescue Transmitter 2009 [cited 2013 10/27/2013]; Available from: 15. IMO, Resolution 74 (69) Annex 3, in Recommendation on performance standards for an universal shipborne Automatic Identification System(AIS)1998. p. 5. 16. FAA. Fact Sheet – NextGen. 2007 02/14/2007 [cited 2013 11/04/2013]; Available from: 17. IMO, Guidelines for the Installation of a Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS), 2003. p. 14. 18. ITU-R, Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time-division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band, 2010, International Telecomunication Union - Radiocommunication Sector Geneva. p. 144. 19. IEC, I., 61993-2. Class A shipborne equipment of the universal automatic identification system (AIS)-Operational and performance requirements, methods of test and required test results, 2001. 20. Eriksen, T., et al., Maritime traffic monitoring using a space-based AIS receiver. Acta Astronautica, 2006. 58(10): p. 537-549. 21. Bailey, N., N. Ellis, and H. Sampson, Training and Technology Onboard Ship: How seafarers learned to use the shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS), 2008, Lloyd’s Register Educational Trust Research Unit. p. 46. 22. Harati-Mokhtari, A., et al. Automatic identification system (ais): A human factors approach. in The Nautical Institute AIS Forum. 2008. 23. Chang, S.J. Development and analysis of AIS applications as an efficient tool for vessel traffic service. in OCEANS '04. MTTS/IEEE TECHNO-OCEAN '04. 2004. 24. Winkler, D., AIS Data Quality and the Authoritative Vessel Identification Service (AVIS), in National GMDSS Implementation Task Force2012: Arlington VA. p. 21. 25. Wilhoit, K. and M. Balduzzi, Vulnerabilities Discovered in Global Vessel Tracking Systems in TrendLabs Security Intelligence Blog2013, Trend Micro Inc. 26. Donati, J. and D. Fineren, Iran shipping signals conceal Syria ship movements, in Reuters2012: US. 27. Grant, A., et al., GPS Jamming and the Impact on Maritime Navigation. The Journal of Navigation, 2009. 62(02): p. 173-187. 28. Tetreault, B.J. Use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) for maritime domain awareness (MDA). in OCEANS, 2005. Proceedings of MTS/IEEE. 2005. 29. Lapinski, A.-L.S. and A.W. Isenor, Estimating Reception Coverage Characteristics of AIS. The Journal of Navigation, 2011. 64(04): p. 609-623. 30. Pawelko, M., exactAIS Product Information, e. Ltd, Editor 2013. 31. Høye, G.K., et al., Space-based AIS for global maritime traffic monitoring. Acta Astronautica, 2008. 62(2–3): p. 240-245. 32. Liping, L. and M. Shexiang, Analysis and Simulation of Slot Collision and Reception Performance of AIS, in Advances in Electric and Electronics, W. Hu, Editor. 2012, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 661-669. 33. Ball, H., Satellite AIS For Dummies, 2013, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. p. 67. 34. Cain, J.S. and E. Meger, Space-Based AIS: Contributing to Global Safety and Security, in ISU Annual Symposium: Space for a Safe and Secure World? 2009: Strasbourg, France. p. 8. 35. Wehn, H., et al. RADARSAT-2 based Suspicious Vessel Monitoring for Protecting Canadian Waters. in Le 15e Congrès de l'Association Québécoise de Télédétection (AQT), intitulé « Surveillance et suivi des changements planétaires » 2013. Rimouski, Québec, Canada. 36. Smith, C., AIS Inquiry (Email Response), A.J. Mokashi, Editor 2013. p. 1. 37. Bertrand, F., et al., Web Architecture for Monitoring and Visualizing Mobile Objects in Maritime Contexts, in Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems, J.M. Ware and G. Taylor, Editors. 2007, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 94-105. 22

23 Citations (continued) 38. Hassler, B., Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies. AMBIO, 2011. 40(2): p. 170-178. 39. Shipfinder. Mobile Apps. 2013 10/29/2013]; Available from: 40., Your Benefits as Our Antenna Partner, 2011, GmbH. p. 1. 41. exactEarth. Use Cases for Satellite AIS. 2013 [cited 2013 10/31/21013]; Available from: 42. Pawelko, M., Arctic Monitoring, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 43. Pawelko, M., Enabling VTMIS in Remote Areas, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 44. Pawelko, M., Extendng Vessel Traffic Services: Offshore and into Remote Coastal Areas, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 45. Pawelko, M., Effective Ship Routing, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 46. Pawelko, M., Effective Vessel Traffic Analysis, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 47. Brooke, S., T. Lim, and J. Ardron, Surveillance and enforcement of remote maritime areas. Paper 1: surveillance technical options. Marine Conservation Biology Institute, USA, 2010: p. 39. 48. Gunnar Aarsæther, K. and T. Moan, Estimating Navigation Patterns from AIS. The Journal of Navigation, 2009. 62(04): p. 587-607. 49. McNamara, M.W. and J.C. Morris, Deliberative Democratic Evaluation: Using Stakeholder Input to Address Transportation Casualties. Public Works Management & Policy, 2013. 50. Chan, M.K., Replacement/Upgrading of Hong Kong Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) System, 2001, The Goverment of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. p. 6. 51. Alderton, P.M., Port management and operations. 3rd ed. Lloyd's practical shipping guides. 2008, London: Informa. xii, 205 p. 52. Tetreault, B., Expanded Use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) Navigation Technology in Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), in Ports 2010. p. 789-796. 53. Idiri, B. and A. Napoli. The automatic identification system of maritime accident risk using rule-based reasoning. in System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2012 7th International Conference on. 2012. 54. Shwu-Jing, C., et al. Vessel Traffic Analysis for Maritime Intelligent Transportation System. in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2010-Spring), 2010 IEEE 71st. 2010. 55. Qu, X., Q. Meng, and L. Suyi, Ship collision risk assessment for the Singapore Strait. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2011. 43(6): p. 2030-2036. 56. Masroeri, A.A., et al., A Review on Some Research Issues on AIS to Improve the Ship Safety Operation at Sea. Journal of Maritime Researches, 2012(2(1)): p. 11-23. 57. The St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation and Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation. AIS Project 2013; 58. Pawelko, M., Rapid Vessel Identification, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 59. Gabler, R. and W. Koch. Detection and tracking of non-cooperative vessels. in NATO Symposium on Port and Regional Maritime Security. 2012. Lerici, Italy. 60. Pawelko, M., Monitoring Piracy, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 61. West, M., T. Cooper, and B. Kachoyan, AIS Analysis in Support of Counter-Piracy Operations. Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs, 2010. 2(4): p. 8. 62. Pawelko, M., Environmental Preservation, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 63. Pawelko, M., Pollution Prevention, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 64. Schwehr, K.D. and P.A. McGillivary. Marine Ship Automatic Identification System (AIS) for Enhanced Coastal Security Capabilities: An Oil Spill Tracking Application. in OCEANS 2007. 2007. 65. Pitana, T., E. Kobayashi, and N. Wakabayashi. Estimation of exhaust emissions of marine traffic using Automatic Identification System data. in OCEANS 2010 IEEE - Sydney. 2010. 66. Perez, H.M., et al. Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Data Use in Marine Vessel Emission Estimation. in 18th Annual International Emission Inventory Conference. Baltimore. 2009. 67. Pawelko, M., Fisheries Protection, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 68. Schwehr, K., Vessel Tracking Using the Automatic Identification System (AIS) During Emergency Response: Lessons from the Deepwater Horizon Incident, in US Hydro2011: Tampa Fl. p. 14. 69. Pawelko, M., Validation of Declarations: Emissions and Ballast Water Exchange, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 70. Eide, M.S., et al., Intelligent ship traffic monitoring for oil spill prevention: Risk based decision support building on AIS. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2007. 54(2): p. 145-148. 71. Hatch, L., et al., Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields. Environmental Management, 2008. 42(5): p. 735-752. 72. Pawelko, M., Search and Rescue, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 73. Pawelko, M., Casualty Alerting, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 74. Pawelko, M., Natural Disaster Relief, in Use Cases for Satellite AIS2013, exactEarth. p. 2. 75. DNV and IMO, Technical eNewsletter - Requirements for AIS-SART versus Radar-SART as search and rescue locating device, 2010. 76. Chanaron, J.J. An operational framework in forecasting radical innovation: The case of the CO2-free automobile. in Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), 2010 IEEE Int. Conf. 2010. 77. Griffith, T.L. and J.E. Sawyer, Changing Perceptions – And Triggering Innovation. Ivey Business Journal, 2008(November / December). 23

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