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Anne Richards, Cara Broshkevitch, Ong Kim Yao, and Poh Yong Rui.

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Presentation on theme: "Anne Richards, Cara Broshkevitch, Ong Kim Yao, and Poh Yong Rui."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anne Richards, Cara Broshkevitch, Ong Kim Yao, and Poh Yong Rui

2  HDPE plastic: used in food packaging, plastic bags, plastic bottles, recycled plastic lumber, toiletry and liquid containers, outdoor furniture, and piping  Takes over 100 years to degrade in a landfill-discarded plastics filling up landfills (Sivan, 2011)  Detrimental environmental effects:  Water and air cannot enter soil – deplete underground water resource  Disrupts degradation of other substances  In the ocean, plastic chokes and entangles marine life

3  Other ways of disposal can not be used:  Burning plastics at high temperatures produces toxic irritants that are human carcinogens  Past research: biodegradation with bacteria or fungi, UV radiation, and thermal radiation have been separately investigated  All three organisms have been shown to degrade polyethylene plastic separately

4 Academy of Science Hypothesis: The following factors affect the rate of biodegradation of HDPE plastic mass:  Ratios of different microorganisms  P. Chrysosporium fungus  P. Putida bacteria  S. Macrogoltabidus bacteria Hwa Chong Institution Hypothesis: The following factors affect the rate of biodegradation of HDPE plastic mass:  Environmental conditions for biodegradation  Exposure time to UV radiation

5 Academy of Science  Independent variables  Ratios of P. chrysosporium fungus, P. putida bacteria, and S. macrogoltabidus bacteria  Dependent variable  Percent change in dry mass of the HDPE plastic samples  Amount of CO 2 gas present Hwa Chong Institution  Independent variables  Environmental conditions for biodegradation  Exposure time to UV radiation  Dependent variables  Percentage change in dry mass of HDPE samples  Amount of CO 2 gas present  Temperature of contents of flask  Cell density of bacterial cultures

6 Academy of Science Culture Bacteria and Fungi Pre-treat Plastic Expose Plastic to Individual Microorganisms Expose Plastic to different Ratios of 3 Microorganisms Measure Dependent Variables Hwa Chong Institution Culture Bacteria Prepare Soil Conditions Pre-treat Plastic Expose Plastic to Microorganisms Measure Dependent Variables

7 Bacteria will be cultured in culture test tubes with nutrient broth Fungi will be cultured in Petri dishes in potato dextrose agar

8 Erlenmeyer flask with minimal media Erlenmeyer flask with loamy soil and distilled water

9 HDPE Plastic Grocery Bags Exposed to 365nm UV radiation for 96 hours Cut into one gram pieces Exposed to thermal radiation in the oven at 115°C for 48 hours Exposed to 365nm UV radiation for 72, 96, 120 hours AOSAOS HCIHCI Cut into one gram pieces HDPE Plastic Grocery Bags Exposed to thermal radiation in the oven at 115°C for 48 hours

10 Academy of Science Expose plastic to:  Individual microorganisms  P. putida  S. macrogoltabidus  P. chrysosporium  Different ratios of the three microorganisms Hwa Chong Institution Expose plastic to:  P. putida in:  Minimal Media  Loamy soil + Distilled water

11 Will be used to measure:  Percentage change in dry mass of HDPE samples  Amount of CO 2 gas present  Temperature of contents of flask  Cell density of bacterial cultures Thermometer CO 2 Probe Analytical Balance Spectrophotometer AOSAOS HCIHCI

12 Aamer Ali Shah (2007). Role of Microorganism in Biodegradation of Plastics. Retrieved October 30, 2011 from Abraham, J., Nanda, S., & Sahu, S. (2010). Studies on the biodegradation of natural and synthetic polyethylene by Pseudomonas spp. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 14. Albano, C., Karam, A., Gonzalez, G., Dominguez, N., Sanchez, Y., Manzo, F. & Guzman-Garcia, C. (2005). Effect of gamma irradiation on HDPE/HA (80:20) composites. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 16, 283–285. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from Ammala, A., Bateman, S., Dean, K., Petinakis, E., Sangwan, P., Wong, S., Yuan, Q., Yu, L., Patrick, C., & Leong, K.H. (2011). An overview of degradable and biodegradable polyolefins. Progress in Polymer Science, 36, doi: /j.progpolymsci Anthony L. Andrady (1999). Environmental Degradation of Plastics under Land and Marine Exposure Conditions. Retrived October 30, 2011 from Arkatkar, A., Arutchelvi, J., Sudhakar, M., Bhaduri, S., Uppara, P.V., & Doble, M. (2009). Approaches to enhance the biodegradation of polyolefins. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 2, Artham, T., & Doble, M. (2009). Biodegradation of physicochemically treated polycarbonate by fungi. Biomacromolecules, 11, doi: /bm Arutchelvi, J., Sudhakar, M., Arkatkar, Ambika, Doble, Mukesh, Bhaduri, Sumit & Uppara, Parasu Veera (2008). Biodegradation of polyethylene and polypropylene. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 9–22. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from CDC/Office of safety, health, and environment. (2010, November 10). Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories (BMBL) 5th edition. Retrieved from

13 Chowdhury, T., Ghosh, A., & Gupta, S. B. (2010). Isolation and selection of stress tolerant plastic loving bacteria isolates from old plastic wastes. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2, Chung, I.Y., Kim, E., Park, J.M., & Seo, S.W. (2008). A case of postoperative Sphingomonas paucimobilis endophthalmitis after cataract extraction. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology, 22, doi: /kjo Gijsman, Pieter, Meijers, Guido & Vitarelli, Giacomo (1999). Cornparison of the UV-degradation chemistry of polypropylene, polyethylene, polyamide 6 and polybutylene terephthalate. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 65, 433–441. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from He, Q., Liang, S., Wang, Y., Wei, C., & Wu, H. (2009). Degradation of o-chloronitrobenzene as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources by Pseudomonas putida OCNB-1. Science Direct, 21, doi: /S (09) Huang, Yi-Li, Li, Qing-Biao, Deng, Xu, Lu, Ying-Hua, Liao, Xin-Kai, Hong, Ming-Yuan & Wang, Yan (2004). Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of polyethylene glycols using sludge microbes. Process Biochemistry, 40, 207–211. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from Johnson, Kenneth E., Pometto, Anthony L. III & Nikolov, Zivko L. (1993). Degradation of Degradable Starch-Polyethylene Plastics in a Compost Environment. American Society for Microbiology, 59, 1155–1161. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from Lanini, S., Houi, D., Aguilar, O. & Lefebvre, X. (2001). The role of aerobic activity on refuse temperature rise: II. Experimental and numerical modelling. Waste Management & Research, 19, 58–69. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from Lucas, N., Bienaime, C., Belloy, C., Queneudec, M., Silvestre, F., & Nava-Saucedo, J. (2008). Polymer biodegradation: Mechanisms and estimation techniques. Chemosphere, 73, doi: /j.chemosphere

14 Morancho, J.M., Ramis, X., Fernández, X., Cadenato, A., Salla, J.M., Vallés, A., Contat, L. & Ribes, A. (2006). Calorimetric and thermogravimetric studies of UV-irradiated polypropylene/starch-based materials aged in soil. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91, 44–51. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from Moriyoshi, K., Ohe, T., Ohmoto, T., Sakai, K., & Yamanaka, H. (2006). Biodegradation of Bisphenol A and related compounds by Sphingomonas sp. Strain BP-7 isolated from seawater. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 71, Mostafa, H. M., Sourell, H. & Bockisch, F. J. (2010). The Mechanical Properties of Some Bioplastics Under Different Soil Types for Use as a Biodegradable Drip Tubes. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, 12, 1–16. Retrieved November 7, 2011 from Nanda, Sonil, Sahu, Smiti Snigdha & Abraham, Jayanthi (2010). Studies on the biodegradation of natural and synthetic polyethylene by Pseudomonas spp. Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management, 14, 57–60. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Orhan, Yüksel, Hrenovićb, Jasna & Büyükgüngöra, Hanife (2004). Biodegradation of plastic compost bags under controlled soil conditions. Acta Chimica Slovenica, 51, 579–588. Retrieved November 7, 2011 from Shah, A., Hasan, F., Hameed, A., & Ahmed, S. (2008). Biological degradation of plastics: A comprehensive review. Biotechnology Advances, 26, doi: /j.biotechadv Sharma, N., & Singh, B. (2008). Mechanistic implications of plastic degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 93, doi: /j.polymolegradstab Sierra, Isabel, Valera, José Luis, Marina, M. Luisa & Laborda, Fernando (2003). Study of the biodegradation process of polychlorinated biphenyls in liquid medium and soil by a new isolated aerobic bacterium (Janibacter sp.). Chemosphere, 53, 609–618. Retrieved November 7, 2011 from Sivan, A. (2011). New perspectives in plastic biodegradation. Science Direct. doi: /j.copbio Thraves, P., & Packer, R. (April 2009). Material safety data sheet. Retrieved from Verma, Shefali (2002). Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Organics in Municipal Solid Wastes. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from


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