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Presentation on theme: "Photo courtesy of pleiade.org. Photo courtesy of apod.nasa.gov."— Presentation transcript:

1 Photo courtesy of pleiade.org

2 Photo courtesy of apod.nasa.gov

3 First Night Intro to Astronomy Video PPT Section 1 – Proper Clothing, Safe Observing, First Aid – Light & Air Pollution – Tools of the Trade Types of Telescopes Instruments Used With Telescopes Proper Care and Storage of Telescopes – Stars & Constellations Observation Session

4 Second Night PPT Section 2 – Sun – Moon – Planets Observation Session

5 Third Night Careers Star Party!!!

6 Proper Clothing Frequently below freezing Thermal Underwear Warm Pants and Shirt Heavy Socks Hat Gloves (Not to limit Dexterity) Winter Coat

7 Safe Observing Methods for Safe Solar and Solar Eclipse Viewing – Glass or film style filters block % of light – Pinhole Projection – Solar Eclipse Glasses NEVER LOOK AT OR NEAR THE SUN, WITH OR WITHOUT A TELESCOPE OR BINOCULARS, WITHOUT PROPER SOLAR FILTERS IN PLACE!! NEVER POINT LASERS AT EYES OR FACE!

8 Hypothermia Due to Being Poorly Clothed Frostbite Dehydration Snake Bites for Desert Areas Damage to Eyes

9 Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature. Normal body temperature is around 98.6 F (37 C). Hypothermia (hi-po-THUR-me-uh) occurs as your body temperature passes below 95 F (35 C). When your body temperature drops, your heart, nervous system and other organs cannot work correctly. Left untreated, hypothermia eventually leads to complete failure of your heart and respiratory system and to death. Hypothermia is most often caused by exposure to cold weather or immersion in a cold body of water. Primary treatments are methods to warm the body back to a normal temperature. Be aware of conditions likely to lead to hypothermia. Know the symptoms of hypothermia. Get the victim into a warm room or shelter.

10 Symptoms Shivering Clumsiness or lack of coordination Slurred speech or mumbling Stumbling Confusion or difficulty thinking Poor decision making, such as trying to remove warm clothes Drowsiness or very low energy Apathy, or lack of concern about one's condition Progressive loss of consciousness Weak pulse Shallow breathing Treatment and Prevention Be gentle. When you are helping a person with hypothermia, handle him or her gently. Limit movements to only those that are necessary. Don't massage or rub the person. Excessive, vigorous or jarring movements may trigger cardiac arrest. Move the person out of the cold. Move the person to a warm, dry location if possible. If you're unable to move the person out of the cold, shield him or her from the cold and wind as much as possible. Remove wet clothing. If the person is wearing wet clothing, remove it. Cut away clothing if necessary to avoid excessive movement. Cover the person with blankets. Use layers of dry blankets or coats to warm the person. Cover the person's head, leaving only the face exposed. Insulate the person's body from the cold ground. If you're outside, lay the person on his or her back on a blanket or other warm surface. Monitor breathing. A person with severe hypothermia may appear unconscious, with no apparent signs of a pulse or breathing. If the person's breathing has stopped or appears dangerously low or shallow, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately if you're trained. Share body heat. To warm the person's body, remove your clothing and lie next to the person, making skin-to-skin contact. Then cover both of your bodies with blankets. Provide warm beverages. If the affected person is alert and able to swallow, provide a warm, nonalcoholic, non-caffeinated beverage to help warm the body. Use warm, dry compresses. Use a first-aid warm compress (a plastic fluid-filled bag that warms up when squeezed), or a makeshift compress of warm water in a plastic bottle or a dryer-warmed towel. Apply a compress only to the neck, chest wall or groin. Don't apply a warm compress to the arms or legs. Heat applied to the arms and legs forces cold blood back toward the heart, lungs and brain, causing the core body temperature to drop. This can be fatal. Don't apply direct heat. Don't use hot water, a heating pad or a heating lamp to warm the person. The extreme heat can damage the skin or induce cardiac arrest.

11 Astronomical observing seldom ever requires great physical exertion. Thus dehydration for astronomers likely will be caused by neglecting the need for drinking hydrating liquids. Still, You Should Know The Following: Symptoms: Dry, sticky mouth Sleepiness or tiredness — children are likely to be less active than usual Thirst Decreased urine output — no wet diapers for three hours for infants and eight hours or more without urination for older children and teens Few or no tears when crying Dry skin Headache Constipation Dizziness or lightheadedness Treatment and Prevention: If any symptoms are discovered rehydrate immediately. Remember to drink plenty of fluids during extended observing sessions.

12 Symptoms Immediate – Often none. No pain, vision loss Within Days – Difficulty reading – Bending of straight lines – A dark patch in the vision – Changes to the way colors are seen Long Term – Dark patches persist – 10% have significant loss – Total loss does not occur Treatment and Prevention Always use safe observing methods when viewing eclipses or the sun No treatment can improve or speed-up recovery.

13 Symptoms A slightly painful, prickly or itching sensation Red, white, pale or grayish- yellow skin Hard or waxy-looking skin A cold or burning feeling Numbness Clumsiness due to joint and muscle stiffness Blistering, in severe cases Treatment and Prevention Protect your skin from further exposure. Gradually warm frostbitten areas. Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes if possible. Depending on severity see a doctor Dress in several layers of loose, warm clothing rather than a single layer. Wear a hat that fully covers your ears. Wear mittens rather than gloves

14 Light Pollution What is it? – The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) defines light pollution as: “Any adverse effect of artificial light including sky glow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, decreased visibility at night, and energy waste”.

15 Light Pollution

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18 Telescopes and Light Paths

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24 Aquarius – Abbreviation: Aqr – Genitive: Aquarii – Translation: The Water Bearer Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 23 hours – Declination: -15 degrees – Visible between latitudes 65 and - 90 degrees – Best seen in October (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – SADALMELIK (Alpha Aqr) – Sadalsuud (Beta Aqr) – Sadalachbia (Gamma Aqr) – Skat (Delta Aqr) – Albali (Epsilon Aqr) – Ancha (Theta Aqr) – Situla (Kappa Aqr) Messier Objects – M2 (globular cluster) – M72 (globular cluster) – M73 (system or astrerism of 4 stars)

25 Aries – Abbreviation: Ari – Genitive: Arietis – Translation: The Ram Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 3 hours – Declination: 20 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -60 degrees – Best seen in December (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – HAMAL (Alpha Ari) – Sharatan (Beta Ari) – Mesarthim (Gamma 2 Ari) – Botein (Delta Ari)

26 Cancer – Abbreviation: Cnc – Genitive: Cancri – Translation: The Crab Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 9 hours – Declination: 20 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -60 degrees – Best seen in March (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – Acubens (Alpha Cnc) – Altarf (Beta Cnc) – Asellus Borealis (Gamma Cnc) – Asellus Australis (Delta Cnc) – Tegmen (Zeta 1 Cnc) Messier Objects – M44 Praesepe, The Beehive Cluster (open cluster) – M67 (open cluster)

27 Capricornus – Abbreviation: Cap – Genitive: Capricorni – Translation: The Sea Goat Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 21 hours – Declination: -20 degrees – Visible between latitudes 60 and -90 degrees – Best seen in September (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – Prima Giedi (Alpha 1 Cap) – Secunda Giedi (Alpha 2 Cap) – Dabih (Beta Cap) – Nashira (Gamma Cap) – Deneb Algedi (Delta Cap) – Alshat (Nu Cap) Messier Objects – M30 (globular cluster)

28 Gemini – Abbreviation: Gem – Genitive: Geminorum – Translation: The Twins Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 7 hours – Declination: 20 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and - 60 degrees – Best seen in February (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – CASTOR (Alpha Gem) – POLLUX (Beta Gem) – ALHENA (Gamma Gem) – Wasat (Delta Gem) – Mebsuta (Epsilon Gem) – Mekbuda (Zeta Gem) – Propus (Eta Gem) – Propus (Iota Gem) – Tejat Posterior (Mu Gem) – Alzirr (Xi Gem) – Propus (1 Gem) Messier Objects – M35 (open cluster)

29 Leo Abbreviation: Leo – Genitive: Leonis – Translation: The Lion Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 11 hours – Declination: 15 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -65 degrees – Best seen in April (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – REGULUS (Alpha Leo) – DENEBOLA (Beta Leo) – ALGIEBA (Gamma 1 Leo) – Zosma (Delta Leo) – Ras Elased Australis (Epsilon Leo) – Adhafera (Zeta Leo) – Chort (Theta Leo) – Al Minliar al Asad (Kappa Leo) – Alterf (Lambda Leo) – Ras Elased Borealis (Mu Leo) – Subra (Omicron Leo) Messier Objects – M65 (spiral galaxy) – M66 (spiral galaxy) – M95 (spiral galaxy) – M96 (spiral galaxy) – M105 (elliptical galaxy)

30 Libra – Abbreviation: Lib – Genitive: Librae – Translation: The Beam Balance Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 15 hours – Declination: -15 degrees – Visible between latitudes 65 and -90 degrees – Best seen in June (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – Zuben Elgenubi (Alpha 2 Lib) – Zuben Elschemali (Beta Lib) – Zuben Elakrab (Gamma Lib) – Zuben Elakribi (Delta Lib) – Brachium (Sigma Lib)

31 Ophiuchus – Abbreviation: Oph – Genitive: Ophiuchii – Translation: The Serpent Holder Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 17 hours – Declination: 0 degrees – Visible between latitudes 80 and -80 degrees – Best seen in July (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – RASALHAGUE (Alpha Oph) – Cebalrai (Beta Oph) – Yed Prior (Delta Oph) – Yed Posterior (Epsilon Oph) – Sabik (Eta Oph) – Marfic (Lambda Oph) Messier Objects – M9 (globular cluster) – M10 (globular cluster) – M12 (globular cluster) – M14 (globular cluster) – M19 (globular cluster) – M62 (globular cluster) – M107 (globular cluster)

32 Pisces – Abbreviation: Psc – Genitive: Piscium – Translation: The Fishes Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 1 hour – Declination: 15 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -65 degrees – Best seen in November (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – Alrisha (Alpha Psc) – Fum al Samakah (Beta Psc) – Torcularis Septentrionalis (Omicron Psc) Messier Objects – M74 (spiral galaxy)

33 Sagittarius Abbreviation: Sgr – Genitive: Sagittarii – Translation: The Archer Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 19 hours – Declination: -25 degrees – Visible between latitudes 55 and -90 degrees – Best seen in August (at 9:00 PM) Messier Objects – M8 The Lagoon Nebula (diffuse nebula) – M17 The Omega, Swan, or Horseshoe Nebula (diffuse nebula) – M18 (open cluster) – M20 The Triffid Nebula (diffuse nebula) – M21 (open cluster) – M22 (globular cluster) – M23 (open cluster) – M24 Milky Way Patch (star cloud with open cluster) – M25 (open cluster) – M28 (globular cluster) – M54 (globular cluster) – M55 (globular cluster) – M69 (globular cluster) – M70 (globular cluster) – M75 (globular cluster)

34 Scorpius Abbreviation: Sco – Genitive: Scorpii – Translation: The Scorpion Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 17 hours – Declination: -40 degrees – Visible between latitudes 40 and -90 degrees – Best seen in July (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – ANTARES (Alpha Sco) – Graffias (Beta 1 Sco) – Dschubba (Delta Sco) – Sargas (Theta Sco) – SHAULA (Lambda Sco) – Jabbah (Nu Sco) – Grafias (Xi Sco) – Alniyat (Sigma Sco) – Alniyat (Tau Sco) – Lesath (Upsilon Sco) Messier Objects – M4 (globular cluster) – M6 The Butterfly Cluster (open cluster) – M7 Ptolemy's Cluster (open cluster) – M80 (globular cluster)

35 Taurus – Abbreviation: Tau – Genitive: Tauri – Translation: The Bull Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 4 hours – Declination: 15 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -65 degrees – Best seen in January (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – ALDEBARAN (Alpha Tau) – ALNATH (Beta Tau) – Hyadum I (Gamma Tau) – Hyadum II (Delta 1 Tau) – Ain (Epsilon Tau) – ALCYONE (Eta Tau) – Celaeno (16 Tau) – Electra (17 Tau) – Taygeta (19 Tau) – Maia (20 Tau) – Asterope (21 Tau) – Sterope II (22 Tau) – Merope (23 Tau) – Atlas (27 Tau) – Pleione (28 Tau) Messier Objects – M1 The Crab Nebula (supernova remnant) – M45 The Pleiades (The Seven Sisters), or Subaru (open cluster)

36 Virgo Abbreviation: Vir – Genitive: Virginis – Translation: The Maiden Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 13 hours – Declination: 0 degrees – Visible between latitudes 80 and -80 degrees – Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – SPICA (Alpha Vir) – Zavijah (Beta Vir) – Porrima (Gamma Vir) – Auva (Delta Vir) – VINDEMIATRIX (Epsilon Vir) – Heze (Zeta Vir) – Zaniah (Eta Vir) – Syrma (Iota Vir) – Rijl al Awwa (Mu Vir) Messier Objects – M49 (elliptical galaxy) – M58 (spiral galaxy) – M59 (elliptical galaxy) – M60 (elliptical galaxy) – M61 (spiral galaxy) – M84 (elliptical galaxy) – M86 (elliptical galaxy) – M87 Virgo A (elliptical galaxy) – M89 (elliptical galaxy) – M90 (spiral galaxy) – M104 The Sombrero Galaxy (spiral galaxy)

37 Andromeda – Abbreviation: And – Genitive: Andromedae – Translation: Princess of Ethiopia or the Chained Lady Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 1 hour – Declination: 40 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and - 40 degrees – Best seen in November (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – ALPHERATZ (Alpha And) – MIRACH (Beta And) – ALMAAK (Gamma 1 And) – Adhil (Xi And) Messier Objects – M31 The Andromeda Galaxy (spiral galaxy) – M32 Satellite galaxy of Andromeda (elliptical galaxy) – M110 Satellite galaxy of Andromeda (elliptical galaxy)

38 Canes Venatici – Abbreviation: CVn – Genitive: Canum Venaticorum – Translation: The Hunting Dogs Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 13 hours – Declination: 40 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -40 degrees – Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – COR CAROLI (Alpha 2 CVn) – Chara (Beta CVn) Messier Objects – M3 (globular cluster) – M51 The Whirlpool Galaxy (spiral galaxy) – M63 The Sunflower Galaxy (spiral galaxy) – M94 (spiral galaxy) – M106 (spiral galaxy)

39 Cassiopeia – Abbreviation: Cas – Genitive: Cassiopeiae – Translation: Queen of Ethiopia or Andromeda's Mother Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 1 hour – Declination: 60 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and - 20 degrees – Best seen in November (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – SHEDIR (Alpha Cas) – Caph (Beta Cas) – Ruchbah (Delta Cas) – Segin (Epsilon Cas) – Achird (Eta Cas) – Marfak (Theta Cas) – Marfak (Mu Cas) Messier Objects – M52 (open cluster) – M103 (open cluster)

40 Coma Berenices – Abbreviation: Com – Genitive: Comae Berenices – Translation: Berenice's Hair Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 13 hours – Declination: 20 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and - 60 degrees – Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – Diadem (Alpha Com) Messier Objects – M53 (globular cluster) – M64 The Blackeye Galaxy (spiral galaxy) – M85 (elliptical galaxy) – M88 (spiral galaxy) – M91 (spiral galaxy) – M98 (spiral galaxy) – M99 (spiral galaxy) – M100 (spiral galaxy)

41 Cygnus – Abbreviation: Cyg – Genitive: Cygni – Translation: The Swan or the Northern Cross Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 21 hours – Declination: 40 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and - 40 degrees – Best seen in September (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – DENEB (Alpha Cyg) – ALBIREO (Beta 1 Cyg) – Sadr (Gamma Cyg) – Gienah Cygni (Epsilon Cyg) – Azelfafage (Pi 1 Cyg) – Ruchba (Omega 2 Cyg) Messier Objects – M29 (open cluster) – M39 (open cluster)

42 Orion Abbreviation: Ori – Genitive: Orionis – Translation: The Great Hunter Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 5 hours – Declination: 5 degrees – Visible between latitudes 85 and -75 degrees – Best seen in January (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – BETELGEUSE (Alpha Ori) – RIGEL (Beta Ori) – BELLATRIX (Gamma Ori) – MINTAKA (Delta Ori) – ALNILAM (Epsilon Ori) – ALNITAK (Zeta Ori) – Nair al Saif (Iota Ori) – SAIPH (Kappa Ori) – Meissa (Lambda Ori) – Tabit (Pi 3 Ori) – Tabit (Pi 2 Ori) – Tabit (Pi 4 Ori) – Tabit (Pi 1 Ori) – Thabit (Upsilon Ori) Messier Objects – M42 The Great Orion Nebula (diffuse nebula) – M43 part of the Orion Nebula, de Mairan's Nebula (diffuse nebula) – M78 (diffuse nebula)

43 Perseus Abbreviation: Per – Genitive: Persei – Translation: The Hero Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 3 hours – Declination: 45 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and - 35 degrees – Best seen in December (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – MIRPHAK (Alpha Per) – ALGOL (Beta Per) – Miram (Eta Per) – Menkib (Xi Per) – Atik (Omicron Per) – Gorgonea Secunda (Pi Per) – Gorgonea Tertia (Rho Per) – Gorgonea Quarta (Omega Per) Messier Objects – M34 (open cluster) – M76 The Little Dumbell, Cork, or Butterfly (planetary nebula)

44 Ursa Major Abbreviation: UMa – Genitive: Ursae Majoris – Translation: The Greater Bear Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 11 hours – Declination: 50 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -30 degrees – Best seen in April (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – DUBHE (Alpha UMa) – MERAK (Beta UMa) – PHAD (Gamma UMa) – MEGREZ (Delta UMa) – ALIOTH (Epsilon UMa) – MIZAR (Zeta UMa) – ALKAID (Eta UMa) Messier Objects – M40 Winecke 4 (double star) – M81 Bode's Galaxy or Bode's Nebula (spiral galaxy) – M82 The Cigar Galaxy (irregular galaxy) – M97 The Owl Nebula (planetary nebula) – M101 The Pinwheel Galaxy (spiral galaxy) – M108 (spiral galaxy) – M109 (spiral galaxy)

45 Ursa Minor Abbreviation: UMi – Genitive: Ursae Minoris – Translation: The Lesser Bear Position in the Sky – Right Ascension: 15 hours – Declination: 70 degrees – Visible between latitudes 90 and -10 degrees – Best seen in June (at 9:00 PM) Named Stars – POLARIS (Alpha UMi) – KOCAB (Beta UMi) – Pherkad (Gamma UMi) – Yildun (Delta UMi) – Pherkad Minor (11 UMi)

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47 Photo in H-alpha By: Alan Friedman The Sun

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49 The Sun...Still Continued... Effects on Electrical and Comm. Systems – Electrical Surges – Blown Transformers – GPS Disruption – Other Satellite Malfunctions Effects on Weather – Increased intensity of Storms – Aurora Borealis – Cloudiness Solar Cycle: 11 year cycle in which sunspots are either increasing to a maximum or decreasing to a minimum. The number of sunspots relates to the increase or decrease of solar storms.

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51 The Moon Average Distance from Earth English: 238,855 miles By Comparison: x Earth's Distance from the Sun Equatorial Radius English: miles By Comparison: x Earth Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature English: -387/253 °F Orbit: Factors which keep Moon in Orbit: Orbital Velocity Earth’s Gravity Transfer of energy occurring during tides

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55 Average Distance from the Sun English: 35,983,125 miles Equatorial Radius English: 1,516.0 miles Equatorial Circumference English: 9,525.1 miles Mass Metric: 330,1040,000,000,00 0,000,000,000 kg By Comparison: x Earth's Equatorial Surface Gravity English: 12.1 ft/s 2 By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mercury. Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature English: -279/801 °F Atmospheric Constituents By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of N 2, O 2

56 Average Distance from the Sun English: 67,238,251 miles Equatorial Radius English: 3,760.4 miles Equatorial Circumference English: 23,627.4 miles Mass Metric: 4,867,320,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg By Comparison: x Earth Equatorial Surface Gravity English: 29.1 ft/s 2 By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 91 pounds on Venus. Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature English: 864 °F Atmospheric Constituents Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Scientific Notation: CO 2, N 2 By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of N 2 and O 2. CO 2 is largely responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages. N 2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA.

57 Average Distance from the Sun English: 141,637,725 miles Equatorial Radius English: 2,106.1 miles Equatorial Circumference English: 13,263 miles Mass Metric: 641,693,000,000,000,000,000,00 0 kg Equatorial Surface Gravity English: 12.2 ft/s 2 By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars. Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature English: -125 to 23 °F Atmospheric Constituents Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon Scientific Notation: CO 2, N 2, Ar By Comparison: CO 2 is responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages. N 2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA. Ar is used to make blue neon light blubs.

58 Average Distance from the Sun English: 483,638,564 miles Equatorial Radius English: 43,440.7 miles Equatorial Circumference English: 272,945.9 miles Mass Metric: 1,898,130,000,000,000,0 00,000,000,000 kg Equatorial Surface Gravity English: 81.3 ft/s 2 By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 253 pounds on Jupiter. Effective Temperature English: -234 °F Atmospheric Constituents Hydrogen, Helium Scientific Notation: H 2, He

59 Average Distance from the Sun English: 886,489,415 miles Equatorial Radius English: 36,183.7 miles Equatorial Circumference English: 227,348.8 miles Mass Metric: 568,319,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg Equatorial Surface Gravity English: 34.3 ft/s 2 By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh about 107 pounds on Saturn (at the equator). Effective Temperature English: -288 °F Atmospheric Constituents Hydrogen, Helium Scientific Notation: H 2, He By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of N 2 and O 2.


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