Presentation on theme: "Microprocessor System Design"— Presentation transcript:
1 Microprocessor System Design Omid Fatemi8088 Microprocessor
2 Outline Moore’s law 80x86 history Pin configuration Minimal / Maximal modeAddress latch enableBi-directional data bus
3 Computer modules Address Bus Keyboard Monitor Printer Mouse Microphone DiskCPUMemory(RAM, ROM)Peripherals(IO)Talk about the effects of the size of data bus - bidirectionalSize of address bus – number of locations and byte addressable - unidirectionalData BusControl Bus
4 Intel’s Microprocessors and Moore’s law ModelYear IntroducedClock RateTransistors per chip400419710.1 MHz2,25080081972 .0.2 MHz3,50080801974 .2 MHz5,00080861978 *5 MHz29,000802861982 *6 MHz120,000386™ processor1985 **16 MHz275,000486™ DX processor1989 **26 MHz1,180,000Pentium® processor1993 ***60 MHz3,100,000Pentium II processor1997 ***233 MHz7,500,000Pentium III processor1999 ***450 MHz24,000,000Pentium 4 processor2000 ***1500 MHz42,000,000Moore’s law in 1965 (transistors per integrated circuit would double every 18 months ). = 8 bit bus; * = 16 bit bus; ** = 32 bit bus; *** = 32/64 bit bus4004 was the 1st microprocessor; it had only a 4 bit bus.8088 (the 8-bit sister of the 8086) at 5 Mhz powered the first IBM PCs.
5 From Intel SiteToday, there are 40 microprocessors in the average middle-class American household. The number increases to 50 when a PC and all the surrounding paraphernalia are added.1These microprocessors are hidden in bathroom scales with digital readouts, irons with automatic shutdown switches and even the common electronic toothbrush that possesses some 3,000 lines of computer code.1Today's automobiles have, on average, more than 50 microprocessors controlling things such as air bags, brakes, engines, windows, door locks and cruise control.2Developed during the 1970s, the microprocessor became most visible as the central processor of the personal computer. Microprocessors also play supporting roles within larger computers as smart controllers for graphics displays, storage devices, and high-speed printers. However, the vast majority of microprocessors are used to control a broad array of devices from consumer appliances and PC-enhanced toys to satellites orbiting the earth.3The microprocessor has made possible the inexpensive hand-held electronic calculator, the digital wristwatch, and the electronic game. Microprocessors are used to control consumer electronic devices, such as the programmable microwave oven and videocassette recorder; to regulate gasoline consumption and antilock brakes in automobiles; and to monitor alarm systems.3It all started 30 years ago, November 1971Intel began development of the first microprocessor in 1969 as part of a project to design a set of chips for a family of programmable calculators from Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom.Originally, Busicom owned the rights to the microprocessor having paid Intel $60,000. Realizing the potential for the "brain" chip, Intel offered to return the $60,000 in exchange for the rights to the microprocessor design.Busicom agreed and Intel introduced the 4004 to the worldwide market on November 15, The 4004 sold for $200 each. The key to the success of the microprocessor idea was to provide a software programmable device. Prior to the invention of the programmable microprocessor, chips were designed to perform specific "fixed" functions.Today's state-of-the-art Pentium® 4 ProcessorThe latest direct descendant of the 4004 is the Intel® Pentium® 4 processor for desktop personal computers.Today's cutting edge Pentium 4 microprocessor operates at 2 billion cycles per second.It took 28 years to go from a speed of 108,000 cycles per second performance in the 4004 brain chip to1 billion cycles per second (1 gigahertz) with the Intel® Pentium® III processor - and only 18 months to break the 2 gigahertz barrier with the August announcement of the latest Pentium 4 microprocessor.Pentium 4 processor-based personal computers (at price points ranging from under $1,000 to $2,000) are fueling the latest trends in home computing - from digital music and home digital movie making to photo-realistic 3D images and visual environments delivered on and off the net in advanced games, education and shopping experiences.
6 The MicroprocessorAn integrated circuit with millions of transistors interconnected with very small aluminum wires.Controls and directs activities of the PCExecute stored programs
7 Von Neumann Architecture MicroprocessorMemoryAddress LinesActualProcessorProgramData LinesRegistersDataControl Lines
8 The 8086 Family:The Late 1970’sCould address up to 1 mb of memory at a time when other CPU’s could only address 64 kb. The 16 bit external bus too powerful.The 8088 replaced the 8086 and had only an 8 bit external busThe 8088 CPU was the first chip used in IBM’s microcomputers
9 The Family:1983Wanted to make the 286 backward compatible with the 8088’s.So had 2 modes:Real mode-less powerfulProtected mode-very powerfulCould access up to 16 mb of memoryNeeded a special operating systemBut most users only had DOS
10 The 386 DX: 1985 First true 32 bit chip, all buses 32 bits wide Capable of running in real mode, 286 protected mode and its own 386 protected modeIn 386 protected mode it had 2 new functions:Virtual memory- could use hard drive to pretend that computer had up to 4 GB of data!Virtual bubbles created for DOS
11 The 386 SX:1988 How different from the 386DX? External data bus reduced to 16 bitsAddress bus reduced to 24 bits, which limited memory use to 16 mbFirst popular lap tops were based on the 386SX but was called the 386 SL and ran on 3.3 volts
12 The 486DX:1989 How different from the 386 family? A built in math coprocessorPerforms high math functionsA built in 8K cache on same chipThis was an SRAM cache that stores code read in the past. When the CPU asks for the code again, it doesn’t have to go to DRAM to get it.
13 486SX:1991Same as 486 DX except the math co-processor is disabled.
14 The Pentiums:1993Had 64 bit external data bus that split internally as 2 dual pipelined 32 bit busesSupported an 8K write through cache for programsMost early pentiums ran at 3.3 volts. This conserved heat. Voltage regulators on the motherboard can decrease voltage
15 Pentiums continuedIncludes clock doubling through the setting of jumpersMost later Pentuims use SPGA, Standard Pin Grid Array. This allows staggers the pens and allows for higher pen density
23 Control Pins MN/MX’ (input) READY (input) CLK (input) RESET (input) Indicates what mode the processor is to operate inREADY (input)When given an input LOW, it will go into a wait stateCLK (input)Provides basic timing for the processorRESET (input)Causes the processor to immediately terminate its present activityTo reset the microprocessor, this must be HIGH for at least 4 clock cycles
24 Control Pins TEST’ (input) HOLD (input) HLDA (output) Connect this to HIGHHOLD (input)Connect this to LOWHLDA (output)
26 Control Pins DEN’ (output) DT/R’ (output) IO/M’ (output) Data Enable It is LOW when processor wants to receive data or processor is giving out dataDT/R’ (output)Data Transmit/ReceiveWhen HIGH, direction of data lines is from microprocessor to memory/devicesWhen LOW, direction of data lines is from memory/devices to microprocessorIO/M’ (output)Device/MemoryWhen HIGH, microprocessor wants to access I/O DeviceWhen LOW, microprocessor wants to access memory
27 Control Pins RD’ (output) WR (output) ALE (output) When LOW, it indicates that the microprocessor is performing a read accessWR (output)When LOW, it indicates that the microprocessor is performing a write accessALE (output)Address Latch EnableProvided by the microprocessor to latch addressWhen this is HIGH, microprocessor is using AD0..AD7, A19/S6, A18/S5, A17/S4, A16/S3 as address lines
28 Clock Signal needed by the microprocessor to synchronize signals ideally a square wave having a constant frequency