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Digital Artwork & Photoshop in Life Sciences Hans de Jong – Boudewijn van Veen 2013 Wageningen University.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Artwork & Photoshop in Life Sciences Hans de Jong – Boudewijn van Veen 2013 Wageningen University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Artwork & Photoshop in Life Sciences Hans de Jong – Boudewijn van Veen 2013 Wageningen University

2 PART 1 About improvement and cheating About vectors and bitmaps Basics of Photoshop Global and local optimizations Colour management

3 3 General introduction Image manipulation or cheating? about quality illustrations, photographs Unaware or not familiar with criteria artwork submission journals High complexity of producing artwork Technical problems print jobs (manuals, books, PhD thesis)

4 4 Incomplete or poor artwork What editors complain about: “Most of the papers that we received include photomicrographs or artwork… Of a sample of 32 papers currently in press, 19 were had incomplete or had incorrectly prepared artwork. Delays caused by the need to improve, change or reformat artwork accounted for an additional average time of 17 days...” Herbert MacGregor Editor-in-chief, Chromosome Research


6 6 Manipulation allowed or not?

7 7 Digital images and misconduct No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or colour balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (eg, dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. If the original data cannot be produced by an author when asked to provide it, the acceptance of the manuscript may be revoked. –Rossner M, Yamada K. What's in a picture: the temptation of image manipulation. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:11-15. –Office of Public Health and Science. Managing allegations of scientific misconduct: a guidance document for editors. Available at:

8 8 Before you start Archive your images –Keep original size and properties –Design a consistent organisation –Backup system (400 GB < € 80) Choose for scientific artwork and collages –Which journal? –Which quality criteria? –Size of paper and columns –Resolution? –File type? –Colour mode? Make first draft of drawing, composition or collage How to exhibit the scientific message as good as possible?

9 9 Three levels of artwork Learn about bitmaps (Photoshop) Learn about vectors and font use (Illustrator; PowerPoint) Prepare charts or specialized images, if needed (Excel, programs for statistics, Phylogeny, sequencing etc.) Make composite artwork with images, vectors, text –Vector program –InDesign, FrameMaker, CorelDraw Export PDF to –printing company –scientific journal –report –web

10 Basics of image types Bitmaps –regular mesh of pixels, –each \with a gray value, XY position –TIFF, PSD, JPG, RAW, PIC, BMP –Conversions generally no problem –Note: TIFF for Mac different from PC. Important for PowerPoint Vectors –mathematical representation of points shaping\\ a line, square, circle or other geometric entities –WMF, EMF, AI, CDR, WMF, font types, PDF (partly) –Conversions often problematic

11 11 Bitmap <> Vector Illustrator, Corel Draw and other vector programs have conversions for bitmaps to vectors and v.v. For converting vector to Bitmap –use export or save as function –Works usually easy and straightforward Bitmaps to vectors (trace) –Results acceptable for simple images with little fine structure and patterns –Requires expertise and patience Converting vector formats between programs often end up in unexpected results. Convert the image to PDF and open PDF in Illustrator.

12 12 Fonts and vectors Original letter (Font: Warnock) Convert into curvesDrag the knot points or vectors Google: vector knot

13 13 Displaying special characters € 5000,- Kroměříž µ = ⅛ k*ξ*ψ, แฟื ันี หำ ธ้ฟร สำะะพห Font technologies: –FOT = Bitmap font (Microsoft, only for software menus) –TTF = 8 bit truetype font (Microsoft + Mac) –PFM/PFB = 8 bit Type 1 font (Adobe) –OTF = 16 bit Opentype font (Microsoft + Adobe) Use Opentype, where possible Embed fonts if needed (comes later when discussing PDFs) In case of doubts or conflicts: convert fonts into curves (vector) or into bitmaps

14 14 Compression Noticeable loss of details –Lossy compression: JPEG –(better is JPEG 2000) Lossless compression: –LZW-TIFF, PSD (Photoshop) Comparison of file size before and after compression Extreme JPG artefacts by repeated compression

15 15 RAW –TIFF – TIFF-lzw – JPEG RAW image = 12.9 MB original image content of sensor TIFF image = 17.3 MB pixel-by-pixel storage, no data loss TIFF / LZW = 7.5 MB pixel-by-pixel storage, compression, no loss

16 16 Image depth How many gray levels? 1 bit: only black and white 8 bits: 28 = 256 gray levels is standard 12 bits: 212 = 4096 gray levels High quality CCD cameras Better Noise reduction Quantitative measurements Photoshop can handle in gray and RGB –8 bit (all comments) –16 bit (part of the functions) –32 bit (part of the functions) New: High Dynamic Range imaging Bit depthExample byteNumber of colours 1-bit1 or 02 (black and white) 4-bit110116 colours 8-bit11001001256 colours 16-bit110010101111001165,536 colours 24-bit111011101111001100111111Millions of colours

17 1-bit4-bit 8-bit24-bit

18 18 DPI vs LPI vs PPI... DPI –Dots per inch –units used to measure the resolution of a printer LPI –Lines per inch –The offset printing 'lines' or dots per inch in a halftone or line screen. PPI –Pixels per inch –the number of pixels per inch in screen/scanner file terms –If you must go halftone, then PPI = LPI x 2.2 –Want more? Google DPI LPI

19 19 Black/white – Gray – Colour Black/white –1-bit format, line drawings, graphs –Mostly 800-1200 dpi (DPI = dots per inch) Gray image –8-bits –High-quality, RAW camera formats: 10-16 bits –Mostly 300-600 dpi Colour –For PC, beamer and monitor display: 3-colour mode RGB (Red-Green-Blue), 3x8=24 bits –For printing: 4 colour mode CMYK (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black), 4x8=32 bits –Mostly 300-600 dpi

20 20 Resolution Line drawings –800-1200 dpi Gray images or colour –300 (normal) – 600 (very high quality) Posters –300-1200 in printed on A4 (will later be enlarged to A0) PowerPoint –Depends on beamer resolution (typically 1024 x 768) Web pages 72-96 dpi

21 21 Input from cameras, scanners etc. –Store as uncompressed or lossless compressed bitmaps in original resolution –No lossy compression during processing –Final export compressed (JPEG most accepted compression) Resolution light microscopic images less than few MB 2.5 x, NA 0.12: (TV adapter 1x) 2448 x 1843 100x, NA 1.4: (TV adapter 1x) 714 x 538 Electron microscopic (very high) –Never more then needed for analysis or printing Flatbed Scanners with optical resolution of at least 1200x1200 pixels –Scanning resolution dependent on final use (A4: 10-20 MB, web: < 100 kb) –Scanning of magazine / newspaper photo’s: descreening needed Use film scanner, where possible. Rule of thumb: scan whole standard 24x36 mm negative produce at 1000 dpi (c. 4 MB) Quality criteria bitmaps

22 22 Quality camera sensors Video / TV: 250-600 lines colour is 8 bits RGB colour 2 x 8 bits = 16.7 Million Most colour CCD image reconstructed by interpolation –Original = RAW –Interpolated = TIFF, JPEG +G +R +B +R +G +B +R +B +R +B +R +G +B +R +G +R RAW image = sensor dumpInterpolated TIFF

23 23 The problem of screens

24 24 Descreening removes moiré

25 25 Tips for descreening Magazine / newspaper photos: regular arrays of dots (screen) Converting into digital images: interference pattern (Moiré pattern) Descreening with hardware scanner, Photoshop or dedicated software Depends on screening frequency (lines per inch) and sample resolution Blurring of pixels in Photoshop (Median filter) Better: –Built-in descreening in scanner or –Specialized software Google: descreening images

26 26 Break

27 27 PowerPoint presentation Instruction movies Example files –Series 1: basics –Series 2: advanced and specific tools –Basic information, overview Background information on the mlab website Instruction movies and example files: N.B. most material is copy protected, so don’t transfer to others! Practicals

28 28 Keyboard short keys for Photoshop CTRL ASelect All (Select menu) CTRL BAdjust Colour Balance (Image menu) CTRL C Copy (Edit menu) CTRL DDeselect (Select menu) CTRLFLatest Filter (Filter menu) CTRLIInvert (Image menu) CTRLMAdjust Curves (Image menu) CTRLRShow Rulers (View menu) CTRLUAdjust Hue/Saturation (Image menu) CTRLYPreview - CYMK (View menu) CTRLZUndo (Edit menu) CTRL0 (zero)Fit on Screen (View menu) CTRL+Zoom In (View menu) CTRL-Zoom Out (View menu) CTRL/ALT IImage size SPACE –TABToggle for menu’s

29 29 Photoshop 1 – global changes File handling –Open (Ctrl O) / Save (Ctrl S) / save as (Sh + Ctrl S) Change resolution and size (Ctrl + Alt + I) Optimize contrast and brightness and colour –Levels tool (Ctrl L) –Curves tool (Ctrl M) –Colour balance (Ctrl B) –Colour hue and saturation (Ctrl U) Sharpness (first menu setting, then Ctrl F) Blur (first menu setting, then Ctrl F)

30 30 High Dynamic Range Imaging High-keymidtoneLow-key

31 31 Automate | Merge to HDR

32 32 History and adjustment layers to correct or further adjust steps in the image processing History: gives an overview of all steps in Photoshop Adjustment layers: for all changes. Effect with and without can be easily compared.

33 original convert to gray hue filtering blue hue filtering red

34 34 Advanced colour - gray conversion Open IMG_3054.tif (map 1-02) Create two separate "Hue/Saturation Adjustment Layers“ (arrow) or use the menu…. Top adjustment layer, –set blending mode to "Color“ –Saturation to minimum. Bottom adjustment layer –change "Hue“ to appropriate contrast was obtained. –Also try saturation slider. Finally merge/flatten the layers. Also try the black and white adjustment layer.


36 36 2. Local changes bitmaps Sharpen filters In most cases the best filters are 1. Unsharp Mask… 2. Smart sharpen…

37 37 Different sharpening methods simple sharpening unsharp mask too much sharpening emphasize only the edges advanced modes, specialized plug-ins, like remove the blur

38 38 Unsharp masking A mask obtained by subtracting the blurred copied layer from the original image enhances the borders of light and darker regions

39 39 original too much unsharp mask better sharp mask

40 40 Blur and median filters Different filters can be used for removing scratches, background noise, make the image “out-of-focus”, and to remove an unequal background.

41 41 Transformation tools Simple Crop and perspective Free transformation Advanced Liquify tool Open image in Ilustrator + mesh overlay

42 42 3. Colour modes

43 43 Different colour modes RGB (red-blue-green) –computer, beamer, slides, Web CMYK (cyan magenta yellow black) –Printers, thesis, sci. journals Lab (Lightness ab) –Device independent –L = lightness; a = green-red axis; b = blue yellow axis –colour manipulations Indexed colours –Web

44 44 Colour model connections Additive colours: RGB Subtractive colours: CMY + K

45 45 Colour space Colour A outside the gamut were corrected to fit the CMYK frame (ICC dependent RGB > CMYK conversion)

46 46 Lab colour No device can reproducing the full range of colors viewable to the human eye The limited color space = gamut of colors Some color models (such as CIE L*a*b) have a fixed color space because they relate directly to the way humans perceive color (device- independent) Other color models (RGB, HSL, HSB, CMYK, and so forth) have different color spaces (device- dependent)

47 47 Avoid CMYK as much as possible! Work always in RGB 24bits and Grayscale 8bits. Only use JEPG (High) compression as final product never as raw or original image file (TIFF, PSD, PNG, BMP or TIFF LZW) –TIFF is also different between Mac and PC –Never use Index color Mode Open in Acrobat and convert to CMYK, and save as PDF.

48 48 All images in RGB as long as possible Work and keep all images in RGB, after assembly in “Illustrator, Indesign”, CorelDraw etc. Export to PDF as RGB Open in Acrobat and convert to CMYK, and save as PDF.

49 49 Tricks to improve colour balance Variation colour balance hue / saturation levels per channel match colour difficult jobs Try the images in map 2-11

50 50 Colour adjustments; try yourself Open colour file RGB > CMYK adjust|variations individual colour adjustment (Ctrl M, Ctrl L, Ctrl B) colour saturation / desaturation (Ctrl U) sharpness in LAB or CMYK model

51 51 Maize leave cross section view Cryo-SEM, image capture and colourization by Adriaan van Aelst Wageningen University and Research Center Wageningen Electron Microscopy Center, lab of Virology, Botanical Center, Building 352, Room 0050 Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen Tel: ++(0)317 483292 Mobile:++(0)633971082 Fax:++(0)317 485005 mail:

52 52

53 53

54 54 Macrophotography of Arabidopsis – unprecedented quality with a € 300 flatbed scanner Original plant (scan size 7.16 x 28.12 cm) was captured with a HP 8200 flatbed scanner at 2000 pixels / inch. File size 5644 x 22167 pixels JPEG 67 MB; PDF 74 MB For information contact DIGART courses of WUR

55 PART 2 Vector drawings from am Excel file Montages of bitmaps, text, arrows and µm bars Postscript and pdf Specific cases: PhD theses, PowerPoint, WEB

56 56 Scientific journals Submission Guidelines for scientific artwork (example The Plant Cell) Before you start –Get all the necessary information from publisher or printing company Resolution & Colour Space Image Size Formats and Fonts


58 58 Make the basic layout 1 Column1½ ColumnsFull Page (about 3.4 inches) (86.4 mm)(about 5 inches) (127 mm)(about 6.7 inches) (170 mm) Before starting, switch of your computer and make a simple sketch with dimensions on a piece of paper. This you need to know, so that you can prepare your images in Photoshop. In this case your images will have to be 41 x 41 mm

59 Different steps in designing Design with dimensions freehand on a piece of paper. Collect all your material you need in your project folder. Resize all your images in Photoshop first, disable resample. Then go to Illustrator to assemble and add your arrows, symbols and text. Final product create either a PDF, EPS, JEPG or TIFF. (Black & White Line Art 1000 dpi / greyscale) (Halftones/Greyscale 600 dpi) (Colour Images 600 dpi / RGB) Important Project folder structure

60 60 Do’s and Don’ts When you transfer images, text and vectors between programs avoid Copy + Paste but use Copy + Paste Special instead. –For bitmaps: paste special as (device independent) bitmap –For text: paste special as unformatted text –For vectors: paste special as Windows Metafile (Enhanced Metafile) Avoid Hairline (= 0.0176 mm), better use lines of at least 0.5 – 1 point (0.15-0.3 mm). Resize, scale or rotate images only in Photoshop, not in Illustrator, etc. If you have Acrobat (not AcrobatReader), use the AdobePDF printer from any programs to print to a PDF file (very versatile). Never use fill pattern in your vectors from any of the MS Office products. In stead choose one of the postscript based patterns. For colours: choose one of the general applicable RGB models. If the printing company wants CMYK, ask them to do the conversion.

61 61 Example of a simple drawing 1.rectangle 2.fill gray, no border 3.make corners round 4.make extension in one of the corners 5.double and mirror 6.make the south part longer 7.double and mirror 1234567


63 63 Montages: vectors and bitmaps Measure all bitmaps Prepare size and resolution in Photoshop Place guide lines and make them sticky Import (Place) all images Add lines of 1-2 points on the guide lines separating the images Add lettering, arrows, µm bars etc.


65 65 Example of charts

66 66 A good PowerPoint presentation The best tip: make a master slide Start PowerPoint-master slide and follow instructions Open PowerPoint Open a new file and make a master slide according to the suggestions Adapting font size and import figures Start PowerPoint-fonts and figures and follow instructions Also open Photoshop Change fonts and font size Import a figure from Photoshop. Adapt resolution and file size if copying through clipboard is not recommended.

67 67 Set up a poster Design your own poster –Size A4 or A3, final print can be scaled to A0) –How many photo’s, drawings and charts –Space for the artwork and legends –Text for authors, affiliations and body text Use one of the templates provided (preferably in Adobe Illustrator) –Make text columns if needed –Place the artwork –Use text wrapping –Place the text in the columns (eventually use Lore ipsum dummy text in map 1-13) –Adapt font type, font size, colour etc. Save as PDF (in high quality and low quality)

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