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Some problems... Lens distortion  Uncalibrated structure and motion recovery assumes pinhole cameras  Real cameras have real lenses  How can we.

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Presentation on theme: "Some problems... Lens distortion  Uncalibrated structure and motion recovery assumes pinhole cameras  Real cameras have real lenses  How can we."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Some problems...

5 Lens distortion  Uncalibrated structure and motion recovery assumes pinhole cameras  Real cameras have real lenses  How can we correct distortion, when original calibration is inaccessible?

6 1. Even small amounts of lens distortion can upset uncalibrated structure from motion 2. A single distortion parameter is enough for mapping and SFX accuracy 3. Including the parameter  in the multiview relations changes the 8-point algorithm from 4. You can solve such “Polynomial Eigenvalue Problems” 5. This is as stable as computation of the Fundamental matrix, so you can use it all the time.

7 E ven small amounts of lens distortion can upset uncalibrated structure from motion—

8 A map-building problem  Input movie – relatively low distortion  Plan view: red is structure, blue is motion (a) (b)

9 Effects of Distortion  Input movie – relatively low distortion  Recovered plan view, uncorrected distortion (a) (c)

10 Does distortion do that? Distortion of image plane is conflated with focal length when the camera rotates [From: Tordoff & Murray, ICPR 2000]

11 Distortion correction in man-made scenes

12 Distortion correction in natural scenes  In natural images, distortion introduces correlations in frequency domain  Choose distortion parameters to minimize correlations in bispectrum  Less effective on man- made scenes.... [Farid and Popescu, ICCV 2001]

13 Distortion correction in multiple images Multiple views, static scene Use motion and scene rigidity [Zhang, Stein, Sawhney, McLauchlan,...] Advantages: Applies to man-made or natural scenes Disadvantages: Iterative solutions|require initial estimates

14 A single distortion parameter is accurate enough for map-building and cinema post production—

15 Modelling lens distortion x: x ero x ed no x ious e x perimental artifa x p: p erfect p inhole p erspective p ure x p p x KnownUnknown

16 Single-parameter models

17 Single-parameter modelling power Single-parameter model Radial term only Assumes distortion centre is at centre of image A one-parameter model suffices

18 A direct solution for 

19 Look at division model again

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21 >> help polyeig POLYEIG Polynomial eigenvalue problem. [X,E] = POLYEIG(A0,A1,..,Ap) solves the polynomial eigenvalue problem of degree p: (A0 + lambda*A lambda^p*Ap)*x = 0. The input is [etc etc...] >> A quick matlab session

22 Algorithm

23 T his is as stable as computation of the fundamental matrix, so you can use it all the time—

24 Performance: Synthetic data Noise  (pixels) Computed Stable – small errorbars Biased – not centred on true value

25 Analogy: Linear ellipse fitting True Data Fitted: 10 trials Best-fit line

26 Performance: Synthetic data

27 Performance: Real sequences

28 250 pairs Low distortion Linear estimate used to initialize nonlinear Number of inliers changes by [ ]

29 Conclusions

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31 Environment matting In: magnifying glass moving over background Out: same magnifying glass, new background

32 Environment matting: why? Learn –light-transport properties of complex optical elements Previously –Ray tracing geometric models –Calibrated acquisition Here –Acquisition in situ

33 Image formation model Purely 2D-2D –Optical element performs weighted sum of (image of) background at each pixel –suffices for many interesting objects –separate receptive field for each output pixel –Environment matte is collection of all receptive fields—yes, it’s huge.

34 Image formation model

35 Step 1: Computing background Input: Mosaic: Clean plate: Point tracks:

36 Step 2: Computing w... Input:

37 Computing w(x,y,u,v) at a single (x,y)

38 Assume w i independent

39 Composite over new background

40 A more subtle example Input: Two images Moving camera Planar background - Need priors

41 Window example

42 Discussion Works well for non-translucent elements –need to develop for diffuse Combination assumes independence –ok for large movements: “an edge crosses the pixel” Need to develop for general backgrounds

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44 A Clustering Problem Watch a movie, recover the cast list –Run face detector on every frame –Cluster faces Problems –Face detector unreliable –Large lighting changes –Changes in expression –Clustering is difficult

45 A sample sequence

46 Detected faces

47 Face positions

48 Lighting correction

49 Clustering: pairwise distances Raw distance

50 Clustering: pairwise distances Transform-invariant distance

51 Clusters: “tangent distance”

52 Clusters: Bayesian tangent distance

53 Conclusions Extend to feature selection, texton clustering etc Remove face detector

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