# 1 Nested Procedures Procedures that don't call others are called leaf procedures, procedures that call others are called nested procedures. Problems may.

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1 Nested Procedures Procedures that don't call others are called leaf procedures, procedures that call others are called nested procedures. Problems may arise now, for example the main program calls procedure A with the argument 3 in \$a0 and the return address in \$ra. Procedure A then calls procedure B with the argument 7 in \$a0 and with its return address in \$ra. We must preserve these values across calls. Lets look at a translation of the recursive factorial function in C.

2 Factorial in C int fact(int n) { if(n < 1) return (1); else return (n * fact -1); } As we can C the function calls itself multiple times. The argument n is sent to the function via the register \$a0, which is saved on the stack along with \$ra.

3 Factorial in Assembly fact: subi \$sp,\$sp,8 # make room for 2 items sw \$ra,4(\$sp)# push the return address sw \$a0,0(\$sp)# push the argument n slt \$t0,\$a0,1 # test for n<1 beq \$t0,\$zero,L1 # if n>=1 goto L1 li \$v0,1 # pseudoinstruction \$v0=1 addi \$sp,\$sp,8 # pop 2 items off stack jr \$ra The following is the recursive call to fact(n-1) L1: subi \$a0,\$a0,1 # n-- jal fact # call fact(n-1) lw \$a0,0(\$sp) # return from fact(n-1) lw \$ra,4(\$sp) # pop n and return address addi \$sp,\$sp,8 # pop 2 items off stack mult \$v0,\$a0,\$v0 # return n * fact(n-1) jr \$ra

4 Procedure Frame The stack above \$sp is preserved ( נשמר ) by making sure that the callee ( פונקציה נקראת ) is doesn't write above \$sp. \$sp is preserved by adding exactly the same amount subtracted from it. All other registers are preserved by being saved on the stack. The stack also contains local variables that don't fit into registers. The segment of the stack containing the saved registers and local variables is called the procedure frame or activation record.

5 Frame Pointer Some MIPS software use the register \$fp to point to the first word of the frame of a procedure.

6 Static and Automatic Variables C++ has two storage classes for variables automatic and static. Automatic variables are local to a function and are deleted when the function exits. Static variables exist across function calls. Global C variables are static, as well as any variables defined with the keyword static. All other variables are automatic. MIPS software reserves a register called the global pointer or \$gp. Static variables are accessed through this register.

7 Characters and Bytes Most computers today use 8-bit bytes to represent characters, with the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) being the most common representation. MIPS provides special instruction to move bytes: lb \$t0,0(\$sp) # read byte from memory sb \$t0,0(\$gp) # write byte to memory lb loads a byte from memory into the rightmost 8 bits of the register. sb takes a byte from the 8 rightmost bits in the register and stores them in memory.

8 Strcpy in C++ void strcpy(char x[], char y[]) { int i; i=0; while((x[i]=y[i]) != 0) i++ } The base address for the arrays x and y are in registers \$a0 and \$a1.

9 Strcpy in Assembly strcpy: add \$t0,\$zero,\$zero #\$t0=0 L1: add \$t1,\$a1,\$t0 #\$t1=&y[i] lb \$t2,0(\$t1) # \$t2=y[i] add \$t3,\$a0,\$t0 #\$t3=&x[i] sb \$t2,0(\$t3) # x[i]=y[i] addi \$t0,\$t0,1 # i++ bne \$t2,\$zero,L1 # if y[i]!=0 loop jr \$ra # return

10 Immediate Operands As mentioned before the I-format instruction contains a 16 bit constant called an immediate. Using I-type instructions avoids loading values from memory into a register. Examples of instruction which use immediate values are: multi \$s0,\$s1,4 # \$s0=\$s1*4 slti \$t0,\$s2,10 # \$t0=1 if \$s2<10 But if a constant is larger than 16 bits? MIPS provides an instruction lui that loads a 16 bit constant into the upper half of an register. In order to load the value: 0000 0000 0011 1101 0000 1001 0000 0000 into \$s0 we must perfrom: lui \$s0,61 #61d = 0000 0000 0011 1101 addi \$s0,\$s0,2304 # 2304d = 0000100100000000

11 Addressing in Branchs and Jumps j 10000 # go to location 10000 Jumps to the address 10000 in memory. 2 10000 6 bits (opcode) 26 bits (address) bne \$s0,\$s1,Exit # branch if \$s0!=\$s1 5 16 17 Exit 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits (address) If addresses of the program have to fit into a 16-bit field no program could be larger than 64KByte which is unrealistic. An alternative would to specify a register which would be added to the branch address. But which register?

12 PC-Relative Adressing The Program Counter (PC) is a register the software can't access directly, that always contains the address of the current instruction being executed. Thus if we use the PC as the register to add to the branch address we can always branch within a range of -2 15 to 2 15 bytes of the current instruction. This is enough for most loops and if statements. This form of addressing is called PC-relative addressing. Procedures are not usually within a short range of the current instruction and thus jal is a J-type instruction

13 Branch Offset in Machine Language Lets look at a loop in assembly: Loop:.. bne \$t0,\$t1,Exit subi \$t0,\$t0,1 j Loop Exit: The machine code of the bne instruction is: 5 8 9 8 The branch instruction adds 8 bytes to the PC and not 12 because the PC is automatically incremented by 4 when an instruction is executed. In fact the branch offset is 2 not 8. All MIPS instructions are 4 bytes long thus the offset is in words not bytes. The range of a branch has been multiplied by 4.

14 Pseudodirect Addressing The 26-bit field in the jump instruction is also a word address. Thus it is a 28-bit address. But the PC holds 32-bits? The MIPS jumps instruction replaces only the lower 28 bits of the PC, leaving the 4 highest bits of the PC unchanged. The loader and linker must avoid placing a program across an address boundary ( גבול ) of 256MB (64 million instructions). Otherwise a j must be replaced with a jr.

15 Addressing Mode Summary Immediate addressing - the Operand is a constant Register addressing - the Operand is a register Base or displacement addressing - the operand is is at the memory location whose address is the sum of a register and a constant in the instruction. PC-relative addressing - the address is the sum of the PC and a constant in the instruction. Pseudodirect addressing - the jump address is the 26 bits of the instruction concatenated ( מצורף ) to the upper bits of the PC.

17 The Intel 80x86 MIPS was the vision of a single group in 1985, all pieces fit together nicely. Such is not the case with the 80x86. It is the product of several independent groups who evolved the architecture over 20 years: Here are important 80x86 milestones: 1978 - 8086 a 16 bit microprocessor introduced 1980 - 8087 floating-point coprocessor 1982 - 80286 extends the memory to 24 bits 1885 - 80386 is a true 32 bit processor 1989-95 - 80486, Pentium (92) and Pentium Pro (95) add more performance 1997 - MMX expands instruction set for multi-media 1997-99 - Pentium II and III add more power

18 80x86 Registers

19 Typical 80x86 Instructions

20 80x86 Instruction Formats

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