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CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF OESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN LAKE VICTORIA IN TANZANIA, UGANDA AND KENYA Mdegela, R.H 1., Mbuthia, P.G 2.,

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Presentation on theme: "CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF OESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN LAKE VICTORIA IN TANZANIA, UGANDA AND KENYA Mdegela, R.H 1., Mbuthia, P.G 2.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF OESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN LAKE VICTORIA IN TANZANIA, UGANDA AND KENYA Mdegela, R.H 1., Mbuthia, P.G 2., Byarugaba, D.K 3., Mabiki, F 1., Msigala, S 1., Waweru, P. K 2., Saphan, M 3 and Mwesongo, J 1 1 Venue: Entebbe, Kampala, Uganda Date: 25 th to 28 th May 2014 VicRes Scientific Conference

2 LAKE VICTORIA  Sub-optimal productivity of fish in Lake Victoria Climate challenge – global warming Overfishing Diseases – Infectious and non-infectious Pollution - Point and non-point sources 2

3 THREATS FROM POLLUTION  Increased human population  Unplanned (informal) settlements  Poor management of wastes  Direct disposal of wastes in water bodies (Rivers & Lake) 3

4 POLLUTANTS OF CONCERN  Conventional group of pollutants and challenges Pesticides Heavy metals  Emerging group of pollutants and challenges Endocrine disruptors Pharmaceuticals 4

5 Justification  Exposure of fish to oestrogenic endocrine disruptors:  Alter normal functions of natural hormones responsible for critical physiological processes  A challenge of great concern worldwide  Many Developed countries, have determined:  Sources, concentrations, identities,  Health effects in aquatic & terrestrial animals  In developing countries, such studies are limited 5

6 Environmentally Important Oestrogens  Oestrogenic hormones include: 17 β -estradiol – β E2 17α-estradiol – α E2 Estriol - E3 Estrone - E1 Mestranol - M 17α-ethynylestradiol – EE  Important characteristics Low water solubility Associated with suspended solids 6

7 Aim of the study  To detect and quantify selected oestrogenic endocrine disruptors in water in Lake Victoria in view to assess their contribution to health status of fish 7

8 STUDY AREA: LAKE VICTORIA, MWANZA GULF 8 Maganga beach, Nyashishi River, Butimba River, Nyakurunduma River, Mirongo River, Old Igombe Landing site, Butuja, Shede and Kigongo Ferry (9 sites)

9 Lake Victoria, Napoleon Gulf, Jinja, Uganda 9 Rwebitookeisland, Bidico, Wairaka, wanyange, Masese, kakira, wanyange drainage, kirinya-fish industry, kirinya–leatherindustry, NWSC, and area with no human activity (11 site)

10 10 Figure 1: Lake Victoria, Winam Gulf, Kenya  Railway sewage, Tilapia beach, Dunga, Rivers: Kisat, Luanda, Otiako, Nyamasaria, Tako, Wigwa, Auji & Kibos (11 sites) Homabay landing site, Rivers: Awach, Nyakwanya, Arujo (4 sites)

11 Collection of water samples  Three water samples were collected from each of the sampling points that included Inshore Intermediate point 1(00 meters from inshore) Offshore (500 meters from the inshore) Rivers (100M before entry into lake) At entry point into the lake At 500 meters from the river entry points 11

12 Collection of water samples (cont……)  Water samples were collected in clean 2.5 liter glass bottles  Extractions done within hours after collection 12

13 Fish samples  Mwanza: Live Tilapia fish were fished where all the water sampling points converged.  In Jinja (Live 44 Tilapia),  Kisumu and Homabay (71 Tilapia and 52 Nile perch) live fish samples were caught from the selected water sampling sites and others purchased from fishermen at the landing sites.  Each fish sampled was examined for gross and histopathological lesions externally and internally. 13

14 Extraction of pollutants in water  Extraction of water samples carried out according to Swart and Pool (2007) with minor modifications 14

15 Detection and quantification  The detection and quantification used Estrogen (El/E2/EE) ELISA KIT  Competitive ELISA technique as per manufacturers recommendations  Total oestrogens (E1, E2 and EE) Estrone(E1), 17- β Estradiol (E2) Ethynylestradiol (EE) 15

16 Results: Validation of the Assay Degree of agreement of the two established correlation coefficients was 94.5% 16

17 Results: Total estrogenic EDs (mean ± SD) concentration (pg/L) in water at different sites Inshore Intermediate Off shore Rivers before entry Rivers at entry Concentration of total oestrogens (pg/L) a b a a a 17

18 18 Results: Total estrogens concentration (ng/L) in Homabay, Kenya

19 Results: Total oestrogens, Estrone and Estradiol (ng/L) in water from different sites 19

20 Results: Comparison of estrogens levels (μg/L) in Napoleon Gulf and selected waste water sites in Kampala Uganda 20

21 Summarized Eds Results  Mwanza Gulf: 1. Total oestrogens – 38.9 ng/L 2. Estrone (E1) – 6.36 ng/L β Estradiol (E2) – 0.12 ng/L 4. Ethynylestradiol (EE) – ng/L 21

22 Summarized Eds Results  Napoleon Gulf 1. Total oestrogen ng/L 2. Estrone (E1) ng/L β Estradiol (E2) ng/L 4. Ethynylestradiol (EE) ng/L  Kisumu 1. Total Estrogen – ng/L  Homabay – 1. Total Estrogen – 3.63ng/L 22

23 Gross Abnormalities in Fish 1.Missing tail/fins % 2.Missing eye/opacity Deformed body Deformed head (jaw, face) heart Kinked back and tail Abnormal body color Growth on back Operculum absent Missing scales Dropsy Splenic granulomas/ increased MM 12.Cystic formation in gonads Aspermia, cystic and atretic gonads 23

24 Dorsal fin starting from the middle of the back 24

25 25

26 26

27 Prevalence of lesions in gonads 27

28 Prevalence of lesions in gonads Cysts embedded in the testicular parenchyma: 2.4% Loosely attached fluid filled cysts: 1.2% 28

29 Histopathological Lesions 29

30 Discussion/Conclusions  All water samples analyzed were positive for total, E1, E2 and EE oestrogenic endocrine disruptors  Some areas had low concentrations, similar finding to other studies (Campbell et al., 2006)  Although low, their potential impact on fish health must be considered 30

31 Discussion/conclusions  In all countries highest estrogens concentration were detected in rivers 100 meters before and at entry point into the lake, fish landing sites and water from sewage treatment plants.  Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed for estrogens levels in river water samples and different lake sampling points.  This study shows existence of oestrogen EDs at different concentrations, and rivers are the main sources of pollutants into Lake Victoria. 31

32 Conclusions/recommendations  Findings from this study therefore calls for intervention that would minimize the discharge of domestic waste water into the rivers and eventually into the lake  Measures for treatment of polluted water before being discharged into the lake should be among target strategic points 32

33 Conclusions/recommendations  Oestrogenic pollutants be considered among emerging pollutants in developing countries  Further studies  Profiling of oestrogenic pollutants  Effect studies of oestrogenic endocrine disruptors in fish 33

34 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTs  SIDA –  VICRES PROJECT  IUCEA  UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI  SOKOINE UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURE  MAKERERE UNIVERSITY  ALL LAKE VICTORIA – FISHERIES STAKEHOLDERS 34

35 THANK YOU FOR LISTENING & SUPPORT 35


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