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1 Paragraphs Part One Golden Rules

2 Objectives: Reading:To identify when to start a new paragraph Writing:To apply paragraph rules to improve writing Paragraphs

3 Letters, reports or stories need an introduction, middle and an end. To help the reader it is best to split into paragraphs. Building up paragraphs A paragraph is group of sentences that share the same topic. You use paragraphs to structure your writing and to make it easier for the reader to follow… The secret of writing good paragraphs is separation (dividing the text into chunks) and continuity.

4 When to finish a paragraph and start a new one is a tricky business. You need to learn the rules, so let’s start with the golden rule... Paragraphs Start a new paragraph when something changes. There are five types of things that could change...

5 Paragraphs Rule No 1: When something new happens... Ant and Dec had been waiting for ages. There was nothing to do until the judges came back. Suddenly they heard a funny noise. It started so quietly they could hardly hear it, but it grew louder until it became unbearable. Then they saw the bats – little, fierce things flying towards them. There were hundreds of them...

6 Every time your writing moves to another place you need to start a new paragraph. This helps the reader to see that you are writing about something different. Rule No 2: When you write about a different place … One morning, when Simon Cowell went for a walk in the park, a runner bumped into him and ran off. Simon felt for his mobile; it was gone! He set off in hot pursuit, pounced on the man and demanded, “Give me the mobile!” The man promptly handed it over. On returning to his office, Simon discovered he left his mobile on the desk!

7 Louis Walsh returned his mobile to the shop, explaining that there seemed to be something loose inside it, and hurried out to catch a bus. Two weeks later, he went back to the shop. Louis had not given his name so he described the mobile and what had been wrong with it. The assistant found it, with a ticket reading: ‘old man – screw loose’. Rule No 3: When your text moves to a different time... Sometimes your writing (letter, email or report etc) will move in time. It can go backwards or forwards describing something that happened at different time.

8 Robson Green was filming a new episode of ‘Extreme Fishing’. Whilst he was sitting in his boat taking a break, a reporter came up to the end of the jetty to interview him. “Have you caught anything?” the reporter asked. “I haven’t caught a thing all day,” growled Robson angrily. He was trying to eat his lunch and wasn’t happy being interrupted during his break. Better luck tomorrow!” replied the reporter. “You never know what you might catch then. Maybe a shark!” “There aren’t any sharks around here,” said Robson. “What’s that then?” the reporter asked, pointing to the big grey fin in the water. Every time someone starts speaking, start a new paragraph. That includes when one person stops talking and someone else starts … Rule No 4: Each time a person speaks...

9 Nadal swung his racket and smacked the ball up into the air, it flew up into the sky and then fell like a stone onto Jordan’s head. Jordan was normally a quiet friendly lady. She had been watching the tennis match for five minutes or so, without saying anything. When out of the blue the ball hit her and suddenly she burst into tears. Rule No 5: When you talk about a new person (or topic)...

10 Miss Marks The Examiner Mistakes to avoid...... So, remember the five times you have to use paragraphs are when: 1) something new happens, 2) you talk about a new person, 3) someone speaks, 4) you write about a different place 5) when you move to a different time. It’s all about breaking your writing into chunks, so that I (the reader) can understand what your text is about! Learn these rules and use them in the assessment to get good results! Plan and draft writing Wt/E3.1 Organise writing in short paragraphs Wt/E3.2 Write in complete sentences Ws/E3.1

11 Paragraphs Task 1 Read rules for writing a letter of complaint pages 14-15 “Formal Letters Part One” workbook Task 2 Plan and draft a letter of complaint (page 16 for details). Remember every formal letter needs at least three short paragraphs. Independent practice: Continue and complete this section “Formal Letters Part One” workbook pages 17 and 18.

12 Colleague assessment Task 3 Team up with a colleague and feedback to each other: 1 Read your text out to your colleague. 2 Listen to the text being read out. Has your colleague improved their writing by using appropriate paragraphs? How could they improve it further? SWAP ROLES

13 Plenary & Self Assessment Review learning objectives: Reading:Were you able to identify when to start a new paragraph? Writing:Were you able to apply the paragraph rules to improve your writing? Did you reflect this in your self assessment?

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