8Enterprise Architecture Management Implementation Business ArchitectureModels & Frameworks for Business DesignsSoftware Components and Runtime ApplicationsRepository of IT Assets for Baseline ManagementMeeting Business RequirementsIT ArchitectureStrategicModelingOperationalTactical and Financial Modeling
9Models and Frameworks Implementation Enterprise StrategyBusinessStrategyEnterpriseBlueprintsEnterprise ArchitectureEnterprise ManagementandContinuousImprovementTechnologyStrategyStrategicEnterprise PlansChangeManagementStrategyEnterprise ExecutionActionProjects and Operations
12Enterprise Architecture Business architecture: Major business activities, functions, and their supporting processes. It further translates the business processes into enterprise business requirements that can be organized into functional groupings. These requirements are supported by information flows and package and custom applications.Information architecture: Information flows, data entity relationships, and enabling tools that are dictated by the business processes and activities from the business architecture.Application architecture: Software programs that automate and support business processes; the functions of the applications; articulates the platform where the applications reside; details the set of applications that will support the business in the future; and displays the linkages between both internal applications and the company’s applications and those of its vendors, suppliers, and customers.Technical architecture: The computing infrastructure (i.e., systems software, hardware, network) that supports the information and application architectures.
14Business ModelingA business model is a simple representation of the complex reality of a business.The primary purpose of a business model is to communicate something about the business to other people: employees, customers, partners, or suppliers.
15Business Modeling Business Motivation Models Business Organizations ModelsBusiness Process ModelsBusiness Rule Models
16Soft Systems Methodology systems thinking systemsthinking systems thinking
17systems theory - systems analysis - management -engineering a well-developed body of theoretical ideas - with many applications:- systems analysis- management-engineering
18hard systems thinkinghard systems approaches (systems analysis (structured methods), systems engineering, operations research) assume:objective reality of systems in the worldwell-defined problem to be solvedtechnical factors foremostscientific approach to problem-solvingone correct solution
19soft systems thinkingsoft systems approaches (Soft Systems Methodology, soft OR) assume:organisational problems are ‘messy’ (Ackoff), poorly definedstakeholders interpret problems differently (no objective reality)human factors importantcreative, intuitive approach to problem-solvingoutcomes are learning, better understanding, rather than a ‘solution’
20methodologyin SSADM - rigid techniques and procedures to provide unambiguous solutions to well-defined data and processing problems problems, focused on computer implementationsin SSM - a loose framework of tools to be used at the discretion of the analyst, focused on improvements to organisational problems
22Basic Shape of SSMThe world interpreted by ideas whose source is the world itself
23Basic Shape of SSMThe world interpreted by ideas whose source is the world itself(expanded)
24Basic Shape of SSMThe shift in systemicity between systems engineering and SSM
25Basic Shape of SSMPurposeful Holons: Human Activity Systems
26SSM - logic stream - cultural stream source: Checkland, SSM in Action
27SSM – overview (seven stage model) situationconsideredproblematicproblemexpressedreal worldsystems thinkingabout real worldconceptual modelsof systems describedin root definitions 4comparison ofmodels andreal worldchanges:systemically desirable,culturally feasibleaction toimprove theproblem situation3root definitionof relevant systems21source: Checkland: Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
28soft problems perceived discomfort poorly defined ‘mess’ (Ackoff) human complicationsunsuited to hard systems or OR techniques
29rich pictures observation boundary idea! coffeetime yet?boundaryidea!crossed swords=frictioniconic representations - drawn together into a picture which sums up the important elements of the problem situation
31deriving relevant systems relevant systems are conceptual (in-the-mind) models of parts of the problem that are of interestthey are models which follow systems principles to help structure the analyst’s impression of the problem - not definitive descriptions of systems in the real worldproblems can be represented as they are perceived by different stakeholders
32root definitions they follow the form: short textual statements which define the important elements of the relevant system being modelled - rather like mission statementsthey follow the form:a system to do X by (means of) Y in order to Zwhat the system does - Xhow it does it - Ywhy it’s being done - Z
33root definition examples primary task (relating to basic tasks and structures)A university owned and operated system to award degrees and diplomas to suitably qualified candidates (X), by means of suitable assessment (Y), (in conformance with national standards), in order to demonstrate the capabilities of candidates to potential employers (Z).issue based (relating to temporary or qualitative concerns, or concerns of judgment)A university owned and operated system to implement a quality service (X), by devising and operating procedures to delight its customers and control its suppliers (Y), in order to improve its educational products (Z).
34CATWOE analysis a check to ensure that root definitions contain most of what is important Customers the victims or beneficiaries of TActors those who do TTransformation input outputWeltanschauung the worldview that makes the T meaningful in contextOwners those with the power to stop TEnvironmental elements outside the system whichconstraints are taken as given, but neverthelessaffect its behaviour
36example CATWOE E national educational and assessment standards C candidate studentsA university staffT candidate studentsdegree holders and diplomatesW the belief that awarding degrees and diplomas is a good way of demonstrating the qualities of candidates to potential employersO the University governing bodyE national educational and assessment standards
37A root definition, CATWOE and pictorial representation of a fence-painting system
38A first model from the root definition A root definition, CATWOE and pictorial representation of a fence-painting systemA first model from the root definition
39A Final model from the root definition A root definition, CATWOE and pictorial representation of a fence-painting systemA Final model from the root definition
40activity (conceptual) models representation of the minimum set of activities necessary to ‘do’ the root definitionactivities modelled by verbs
41activity models - symbols verb + nounphraseactivity - ‘do something’Alogical dependency arrow - activity A must come before B, or if activity A is done badly - so will BBboundaryexample use
42activity model - example A university owned and operated system to award degrees and diplomas to suitably qualified candidates (X), by means of suitable assessment (Y), (in conformance with national standards), in order to demonstrate the capabilities of candidates to potential employers (Z).
43measures of performance E1 - efficacy (does the system work, is the transformation effected)?E2 - efficiency (the relationship between the output achieved and the resources consumed to achieve it)E3 - effectiveness (is the longer term goal (Z) achieved)
44measures of performance - example E1 (efficacy) - are degrees and diplomas awarded?E2 (efficiency) - how many degrees and diplomas, of what standard, are awarded for the resource consumed?E3 (effectiveness) - do employers find the degrees and diplomas a useful way of assessing the qualities of potential employees?
45the complete conceptual model root definitionCATWOEactivity modelmeasures of performance
46the complete model - example enroll studentsdesigneducationprogrammesappreciatenationalstandardseducatestudentsallotresourcesand carry outassessmentawarddegrees + diplomasto students reachingacceptable levelsmonitor forE1, E2, E3take controlactionE1 (efficacy) - are degrees and diplomas awarded?E2 (efficiency) - how many degrees and diplomas, of what standard, are awarded for the resource consumed?E3 (effectiveness) - do employers find the degrees and diplomas a useful way of assessing the qualities of potential employees?
47levels of resolutioneach activity may be modelled at a higher level of resolution - in other words a new root definition is prepared specific to that activity and a conceptual model built which further defines the set of (more detailed) activities necessary to accomplish it.in this way complex situations with many activities can be modelled without loosing a sense of the overall shape of the problem
48comparison with the real world activityis it done in the real situation?how is it done?comments,recommendations123