Presentation on theme: "Car Clubs, Carbon and Air Quality The contribution car clubs can make to reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and particulates in the context of Air."— Presentation transcript:
Car Clubs, Carbon and Air Quality The contribution car clubs can make to reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and particulates in the context of Air Quality Management Action Plans. With Contributions from Matthew Eastwood (Carplus) and Chris Endacott (Gfleet) Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
Tailpipe Emissions Car club cars in Scotland are 29% more fuel efficient than the average car on Scotland’s roads. Average Car (unknown fuel) figure Defra/DECC GHG conversion factors for company reporting August 2011. Car club car figure based on manufacturer test cycle data incorporating 15% uplift to account for real world driving conditions in line with Defra reporting guidelines.
Scottish Urban Car Club Forum Carbon Savings Relative fuel efficiency amounts to a saving of 229 tonnes of CO 2 a year – assuming no overall reduction in mileage. There are approx. 6,300 car club members in Scotland. Assuming only half travel the an average of 765 miles a year by car club (Figure from Member Survey 2011-12), greater car club vehicle efficiency therefore saves 229 tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of fuel efficiency – assuming no overall reduction in mileage.
Scottish Urban Car Club Forum Average Annual Household Mileage Car club member households tend to have lower average annual car mileage than the national average. Car Club Household Mileage: 2,629 (Carplus Annual Survey 2011-12), Household Mileage: 9,688 (Scottish Households National Travel Survey 2010).
Scottish Urban Car Club Forum Car Clubs and Travel Behaviour Source: Carplus Annual Survey 2011-12. Average reduction of 831 miles or 272kg of CO 2 per member per year – or 856 tonnes a year, assuming only half of Scotland’s 6,300 car club members are active. Based on Defra ‘Average Car’ unknown fuel type.
Scottish Urban Car Club Forum Transport Related CO 2 Savings Based on the assumptions and methodology outlined in the previous slides, Scottish car club contribution to transport related CO 2 emission savings: o 229 tonnes a year in vehicle efficiency savings. o 856 tonnes a year in mileage reduction. A total saving of 1,085 Tonnes of CO2 per year.
Air Quality: The Other Problem! Air Quality Management Areas - AQMAs. Many AQMAs in the UK. –200+ Councils with AQMAs. –Typically cover urban centres. In the UK most due to NO 2. –In Scotland both NO X & PM 10. –Diesel engines major source. Access restrictions work! –TfL has setup LEZ inside M25. –Norwich & Oxford have LEZs. –Only permit clean vehicles. CouncilNO2PM10 SO 2 Perth & KinrossYY FifeYY DundeeY AberdeenYY Midlothian Y EdinburghY West LothianYY Falkirk CouncilYYY North Lanarkshire Y South Lanarkshire Y East DunbartonshireYY GlasgowYY RenfrewshireY Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
AQMA’s in Scotland Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
Europe Refuses UK Air Pollution Reprieve (BBC 27 June 2012) Government plans to delay air pollution improvements in 12 UK areas have been refused by the European Commission, which says air quality must improve. The UK may now face fines if it fails to improve air quality quickly. Air pollution reduces average life expectancy in the UK by up to eight months. Responsible for in excess of 20,000 premature deaths each year (estimates range from 12,000 to 50,000). The UK has been denied permission by the commission to delay air quality improvements in the following areas: –Aberdeen and North-East Scotland. –Belfast. –Birkenhead, Brighton, Bristol, Liverpool, Preston, Sheffield, Tyneside, South-West England. –Swansea, South Wales. Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
Cleaner Engines ? Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
The NO X ic Test! Comparison of four Euro 5 cars on NO X : –VW Polo Bluemotion (D) 148 mg/km –Fiat 500 TwinAir (P) 34 mg/km –Toyota Prius Mk III (PH) 6 mg/km –Nissan Leaf (EV) 0 mg/km
PSVs Main Source of NO X ? Factor Euro 5 BusNBfLLTI TX Taxi Year of manufacture2011/1220122007 Seating68624 Standing15250 Capacity83874 Unladen weight (kg)13,00011,8001,800 Min average mpg1011.625.4 Fuel type & drive train DieselDE HybridDiesel Euro StandardE5E6E3 CO 2 Emissions g/km720640243 CO 2 Emissions g/pkm (50%) 1814121 NO X emissions mg/km500-1000396772 Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
Euro V and SCR – PSVs Kleinebraham (2008), Federal Environmental Agency, Germany. Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
Impact of Euro Standards on NO X Nationally NO X levels not falling as expected. –One problem is the rapid growth in diesel cars. Issue with urban performance of heavy diesel E5. –At low-speed SCR may not be hot enough. –If switched off NO X can be higher than Euro 3. Ideal urban car would be low or zero NOx. Only EVs are zero emission at point of use. Petrol and PE Hybrid best option after EV. Scottish Urban Car Club Forum
EVs and Other Alternatively Fuelled Vehicles An overview of how car clubs operate petrol hybrid, electric and Hydrogen electric car club vehicles with possible contributions from Carplus and Co-wheels. Scottish Urban Car Club Forum