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Ettore Fiorini Trento, Nov.19, 2008 An unusual application of fundamental physics : the mystery of Napoleon death Searches for rare events to be carried.

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Presentation on theme: "Ettore Fiorini Trento, Nov.19, 2008 An unusual application of fundamental physics : the mystery of Napoleon death Searches for rare events to be carried."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ettore Fiorini Trento, Nov.19, 2008 An unusual application of fundamental physics : the mystery of Napoleon death Searches for rare events to be carried out underground and under low environmental and “internal” radioactivity One of the main problem => study and suppression of the background at an extreme level => examples Solar neutrinos => few interactions Interactions of WIMPS =>conting rate in the low energy region Double beta decay => counting rate in the region of 2-3 MeV Advanced instrumentation for fundamental physics => archaeometry 119/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

2 219/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

3 3 Measurements of trace elements  environmenthsal physics  industry  medical physics  archaeometrfy 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento Experiments CUORE and CUORICINO

4 How to rekognize the presence of few disturbing elements If they are radioactive =>  and  ray spectroscopy In any case :  Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS) In some case Laser Ablation (LA ICPMS)  Neutron Activation Analysis Could sometimes reach the best sensitivity Recent results of neutron activation analysis on Roman Lead Lead is an excellent shielding material:  High atomic number  Reasonable mechanical properties  Reasonable cost It contains however 210 Pb active with an half lifetime of 22.3 years Especially dangerous for searches on WIMPS. Low energy counting rates 419/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

5 5 Alpha and beta decay of 238 U 238 U e9 a => 234 Th d => 234 Pa h => 234 U e5 a 230 Th e4 a => 226 Ra e3 a => 222 Rn d 218 Po s => 214 Pb h => 214 Bi m => 214 Po m 210 Pb a => 210 Bi d => 210 Po  s => 206 Pb 82 (stable) 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

6 No evidence of 210 Pb in Roman lead found in a Roman “Navis oneraria magna” 619/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

7 Alpha and beta decay of 238 U 238 U e9 a => 234 Th d => 234 Pa h => 234 U e5 a => 230 Th 92 => 7.54 e4 a => 226 Ra e3 a => 222 Rn 86 => d => 218 Po s => 214 Pb h => 214 Bi m => 214 Po m s => 210 Pb a => 210 Bi d => 210 Po => 206 Pb 82 (stable) 719/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

8 8 No presence of 210 Pb < 4 m Bq/kg), what about U and Th ? Whith neutron activation analysis < g/g Element Dy, Eu In,Lu.Mn Au.Ho,Ir,Sm,W Ag,As,Br,Cl,Co,Sb,Se,Th,U Al,Ba.Hg, Na,Sr,Te,Zn >10 -8 Ca,K.Sn,Ti,Fe,Pb,S Particularly sensitive to search for As  only stable isotope 75 As  thermal neutrons = 4.3 barns => 76 As => beta  26.3 d and emission of a keV  ray 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

9 The use of our powerful method to investigate the presence of of arsenic in hairs of historical origin Arsenic, like other heavy metals concentrates in hairs Its presence used in criminology. Many previous measurements => poor instrumentation and often inconclusive result High school remembrance of Alessandro Manzoni Il cinque maggio e i dì nell'ozio chiuse in sì breve sponda, segno d'immensa invidia e di pietà profonda, d'inestinguibil odio e d'indomato amor. The fifth of May and his idle days closed in such a short site, target of immense envy and of deep pity, of unchanged hate and of untamable love 919/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

10 10 Saint Helene 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

11 1119/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

12 12 Nature 299, (14 October 1982); doi: /299627a0 Napoleon Bonaparte—no evidence of chronic arsenic poisoning Peter K. Lewin, Ronald G. V. Hancock* & Paul Voynovich THE TRUTH GOES THROUGH THREE STAGES: First, it is ridiculed; Second, it is violently attacked; Finally, it is accepted as self-evident. Who Murdered Napoleon? Probably Nobody! By H.Blair h 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

13 Assasination strongly substained by B.Weider and P.Hapgood initially based on Neutron activation measurements at Harwell on suggestion of S.Forthuvud  10 – 38 ppm of As, later  11 – 3 ppm and time distribution (no error) 13 Previous results 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

14 The Longwood house 1419/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

15 X-ray fluorescence analysis on the paper on the walls  0.08 g cm -2 a value presently non acceptable Later negative measurements Measurement on the tapisserie of the Longwood House 1519/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

16 Other negative results  Neutron activation (2.5 x n cm -2 s -1 for 15 hours) with  ray spectroscopy => 1.4 ±1.2 ppm. Assumes no poisoning  Neutron activation with  ray spectroscopy => Elba Isle 1.85 ±.11 ppm. => Saint Helene 3.5 ± 0.18 ppm and 33.3 ± ppm (bad treatment)  A living man and woman 32 ± 3 and 33 ± 2 ppb Assumes no poisoning  Neutron activation with  ray spectroscopy (Saclay, unpublished) => Saint Helene Two hairs with an average of 4.5 ppm B.Weider insists Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (P.Kinz) => 6.99 – ppm FBI (neutron activation analysis on two hairs ) => 33.3 and 14 ppm 1619/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

17 Our experiment (strongly suported by INFN)  A multisciplinary research group  The same precision as in neutrino physics  Only hystorical material from certified institutions  Mainly during vacations (with the exclusion of neutron activation) Massimiliano Clemenza, Ettore Fiorini, Laura Guerra, Costanza Herborg, Massimo Labra, Edoardo Orvini, Adalberto Piazzoli, Ezio Previtali, Francesco Puggioni, Angela Santagostino -Fundamental physics – Neutron activation – Toxicologists – Hystorian -All neutron activations carried out at the TRIGA Mark II of the Laboratorio di Energia Nucleare Applicata of the Pavia University -(thermal neutron flux of n cm -2 s -1 -  ray spectroscopy in Milano-Bicocca and Pavia and measurement of the hair mass in Milano-Bicocca 1719/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

18 Hystorical materials used in this search From the Napoleonic (Rome), Glauco Lombardi (Parma) and Malmaison (Paris) Museums Capello Massa (mg) Odierno 1 0,122 Aiglon ,138 Odierno 2 0,112 Aiglon ,108 Odierno 3 0,096 Napoleone Corsica 1 0,180 Odierno 4 0,138 Napoleone Corsica 2 0,274 Odierno 5 0,220 Napoleone Elba 1 0,232 Odierno 6 0,066 Napoleone Elba Odierno 7 0,118 Napoleone S. Elena 5 maggio 1 0,126 Odierno Napoleone S. Elena 5 maggio 2 0,166 Odierno 9 0,148 Napoleone S. Elena 5 maggio 3 0,090 Odierno 10 0,230 Napoleone S. Elena 5 maggio 4 0,130 Aiglon ,106 Napoleone S. Elena 5 maggio 5 0,224 Aiglon ,088 Napoleone S. Elena 5 maggio 6 0,148 Aiglon ,132 Napoleone S. Elena 6 maggio 1 0,254 Aiglon ,104 Napoleone S. Elena 6 maggio 2 0,328 Aiglon ,078 Josephine 1 0,268 Aiglon ,060 Josephine 2 0, /11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

19 1919/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

20 2019/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

21 Certified calibrated standards have been used 2119/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

22 Measurements on the As content in the hairs of a living subject, and comparison with the content in the hairs of the Aiglon and of Empress Josephine Contemporary hair As(in 10-2 ppm) Present 1 8,6 ±,9 Present 2 5,6 ± 1,8 Present 3 11,0 ± 3,5 Present 4 12,4 ± 3,9 Present 5 2,4 ± 1,1 Present 6 7,1 ± 2,8 Present 7 5,4 ± 1,7 Present 8 4,0 ± 1,4 Present 9 4,3 ± 3,1 Present 10 4,8 ± 2 Aignon and Josephine As (in ppm) Aiglon ,4 ± 1,0 Aiglon ,1 ± 0,6 Aiglon ,6 ± 1,3 Aiglon ,9 ± 1,0 Aiglon ,9 ± 1,1 Aiglon ,2 ± 1,3 Aiglon ,6 ± 0,8 Aiglon ,5 ± 0,9 Josephine - 1 0,8 ± 0,4 Josephine – 2 1,2 ± 0,5 2219/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

23 As (in ppm) Corse 1770 – 1 8.3± 0,9 Corse ,3 ± 0,7 Elba 1814 – 1 4,4 ± 0,5 Elba ,5 ± 0,4 S. Elene 5 May ,1 ± 1,3 S. Elene 5 May ,7 ± 1,7 S. Elene 5 May ,2 ± 1,4 S. Elene 5 May ,0 ± 1,7 S. Elene 5 May ,4 ± 2,3 S. Elene 5 May ,9 ± 2,2 S. Elene 6 May ,2 ± 2,0 S. Elene 6 May 1821 – 2 9,7 ± 1, Arsenic in the hairs of the Emperor 2319/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

24 Fragment Mass (mg) As ( ppm ) 2A 0,012 27,6 ± 3,0 2B 0,022 22,0 ± 2,5 2C 0,026 21,4 ± 2,5 2D 0,032 17,5 ± 2,0 2E 0,032 16,6 ± 1,9 2F 0,026 20,7 ± 2,4 Change of the contamination along the hair (the mass has decreased due to irradiation) 2419/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

25 Arsenic content in the water of the spring liked by the Emperor (near his first grave) 2519/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

26 2619/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

27 27 Sample As (μg/L) N.1 1,0000 N.2 1,5000 N.3 2,0000 N.4 1,2500 N.5 1,1000 N.6 0,8000 Average 1,28 ±.43 Presently legally accepted limit => 10 Arsenic intake from medicines and definirtely from paper on walls, but not from water 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

28 Hope to have finished, but Napoleon strikes again: Large impact in the national and international press (more than 100 newspapers) Recent paper on the New York Times 28 Hair Analysis Deflates Napoleon Poisoning Theories Was Napoleon poisoned? now, a team of scientists at Italy’s National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Milan-Bicocca and Pavia has uncovered strong evidence to the contrary. 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

29 29 Contact with many toxicologists: J.T.Hindmarsh Royal College of Phatologists of England and Canada and P.F.Corso Norwalk Hospitala (Connecticut) A.Lugli Department of Pathology – Basel University Very precise pathological analysis Change of the weight with time from 12 samples of trousers (checked with volunteers) Connection of the weight with subcutaneous fat from authopsy of 270 patients Comparison of pictures of gastric lesions and other features of patients dyying of cancer with the very detailed authopsy of Francesco Antonmarchi (pupil of the famous Giuseppe Macagni of Siena University) 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

30 3019/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

31 Conclusions Us Our measurements on hairs of presently living people indicate a presence of arsenic two order of magnitude less than those of hystorical people The procedure to attribute the large amount of Arsenic in Napoleon hairs to state his poisoning is wrong The arsenic presence in the larger sample of hairs of Napoleon after his death ever measured is in agreement among the various components and comparable to those measured in the King of Rome in four different period of his life The concentration of arsenic in Napoleon hairs in Saint Helene is larger than he was in in the Elba Isle, but is not such to justify the criminal hypothesis which would require a concentration of 45 ppm or larger. This is confirmed by the concentration with time along one hair and indicate a cronic exposure due to environmental reasons Previous and present detailed clinical analisis strongly confirm our results 31 A.Lugli et al In conclusion, we believe that the original autopsy findings and our analysis of Napoleon’s lifetime weight changes provide strong support for the hypothesis that Napoleon’s final defeat was caused by gastric cancer. 19/11/2008Ettore Fiorini, Trento

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