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Úvod do molekulárnej medicíny MUDr. Ing. Bc. Peter Celec, PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "Úvod do molekulárnej medicíny MUDr. Ing. Bc. Peter Celec, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Úvod do molekulárnej medicíny MUDr. Ing. Bc. Peter Celec, PhD.

2 2 Linus Carl Pauling (1901 – 1994) Nobel prize 1954 – Chemistry 1962 – Peace

3 3 „Life is a relationship between molecules, not a property of any one molecule. So is therefore disease, which endangers life. While there are molecular diseases, there are no diseased molecules.“ Linus C. Pauling, 1962

4 4 Basics

5 5

6 Francis Crick –

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8 James Watson –

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11 11 Molecular Medicine Based on molecular knowledge Based on XNA Proteomics Genomics Molecular interactions Regulations Signalling pathways Gene therapy

12 12 What we will NOT talk about... XNA structure Monogenic disorders Immunology Carcinogenesis

13 13 Genome ( DNA ) Transcriptome ( RNA ) Proteome ( protein ) Metabolome ( pathways ) Genome

14 14

15 15 Information processing Communication Intercellular Intracellular

16 16

17 17 Signalling pathways

18 18 Ligands Hydrophilic Small molecules Larges proteins Hydrophobic Steroids Thyroxine Retinoids

19 19 Receptors G-protein coupled Tyrosine kinases Ion channels Intracellular

20 20 Signalling pathways

21 21 Phosphate

22 22 G-protein coupled

23 23 G-protein coupled Animation

24 24 Second messangers cAMP cGMP IP 3 DAG Ca ++

25 25 Gene „The gene is by far the most sophisticated program around.“ Bill Gates

26 26 Gene expression regulation

27 27

28 28 Jak – Janus (Roman god of gates and doors) Kinase Jak – Just Another Kinase STAT – Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription APS – Adaptor protein with Pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains C-Cbl - Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma EPO – Erythropoietin

29 29 Tyk2 – Tyrosine kinase 2 mTOR – mammalian Target Of Rapamycin MAPK – MAP (Microtubule Associated Protein) Kinase MAPK – MAP (Mitogen Activated Protein) Kinase ISRE – Interferon-Stimulated Response Element GAS – IFN-Gamma-Activation Site

30 30 GR – Glucocorticoid Receptor FKBP – FK506 (tacrolimus)-Binding Protein HSP – Heat Shock Protein GRE – Glucocorticoid Response Element

31 31 c-Fos – FBJ (Finkel MP, Biskis BO, Jinkins PB) OsteoSarcoma virus AP-1 – Activator Protein 1 TGACTCA

32 32 FAP FAP – c-Fos AP-1 binding site IP-1 – Inhibitory Protein 1

33 33 NFκB

34 34 FasL – Fas Ligand TRAF – TNFα Receptor Associated Factor NIK – NFκB Inducing Kinase CBP – CREB Binding Protein NFkB

35 35 MAP kinases GEF – Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

36 36 MAP kinases Animation

37 37...but...

38 38 Signalling pathways

39 39 Responses???

40 40

41 41

42 42 Apoptosis

43 43 Apoptosis Videos

44 44

45 45

46 46 Autophagy MacroautophagyMicroautophagy

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48 48

49 49 Oxygen sensing

50 50 HIF – Hypoxia Inducible Factor IGFR – Insulin like Growth Factor Receptor EGFR – Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor HER2 – Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 PI3K – PhosphatidylInositol-3-Kinase AKT – serine/threonine protein kinase B FRAP – FKBP rapamycin associated protein PH – Prolin Hydroxylases HDAC – histone deacetylase VHL – von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein FIH – factor inhibiting HIF-1α B – elongin B C – elongin C C2 – cullin 2 HRE – hypoxia response element GLUT – glucose transporter ARNT – Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator

51 51

52 52 Angiogenesis

53 53

54 54

55 55 Aaron Ciechanover Avram Hershko Irwin Rose 1/3 of the prize Israel 1/3 of the prize Israel 1/3 of the prize USA Technion – Israel Instutute of Technology Haifa, Israel Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Haifa, Israel University of California Irvine, CA, USA b. 1947b (Karcag, Hungary) b The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

56 56 Ubiquitin

57 57 Ub E1 Ub E2 Ub E3 Ub 26S proteasome degradation Target Ub Ub Ub Ubiquitin pathway Ubi-activating EUbi-conjugating EUbi-ligase

58 58 Ub ATP AMP + PPi E1 Ub E1 C E2 C Ub E3 C Ub Protein K Ub E3 Protein K K E2 Ub E3 Ub Protein K E3 E2 C Ub Protein Ub AMP + PPi   Protein K K K K K K K K Proteosynthesis Antigen presentation H A B C1 C2 D E  Ub Protein Ub ATP Protein Ub Protein Ub I F G J 

59 59 Molecular diagnostics

60 60 Kary Banks Mullis (1944 – ) Nobel prize 1993 – Chemistry

61 61 PCR

62 62

63 63 PCR Expensive?

64 64

65 65 PCR Analyzed by Electrophoresis

66 66 Real-time PCR Quantitative PCR Fluorescent detection of PCR products in real time

67 67 RFLP

68 68 RFLP & VNTR Animation

69 69 Blotting Western Southern Northern

70 70 Western Blot

71 71 Western Blot Animation

72 72 Southern Blot

73 73

74 74 Southern Blot Animation

75 75 RT PCR Animation

76 76 FISH Procedure

77 77 FISH

78 78 Frederick Sanger (1918 –) Nobel prize 1958 – Chemistry 1980 – Chemistry

79 79 Sequencing Animation

80 80 Microarray

81 2006 Ústav patologickej fyziológie MUDr. Ing. Peter Celec, PhD. Génová terapia

82 DefiníciaPrincípyRozdeleniaVektoryKlinikaProblémy

83 Definícia Všetky prístupy na liečenie chorôb, ktoré využívajú nukleové kyseliny a génové inžinierstvo

84 Princípy génovej terapie Náhrada génu Zabitie cieľovej bunky Oprava mutácie Cielená inhibícia génovej expresie

85 Princípy génovej terapie Náhrada génu

86 Princípy génovej terapie Zabitie cieľovej bunky

87 Princípy génovej terapie Zabitie cieľovej bunky

88 Princípy génovej terapie Zabitie cieľovej bunky indukciou imunitného systému

89 Princípy génovej terapie Oprava mutácie

90 Princípy génovej terapie Cielená inhibícia génovej expresie

91 Princípy génovej terapie RNA interferencia

92 Rôzne delenia génovej terapie Podľa funkčnej nukleovej kyseliny – DNA based – RNA based

93 Rôzne delenia génovej terapie Podľa typu ovplyvnených buniek – Somatická – Zárodočná

94 Rôzne delenia génovej terapie

95 Podľa prístupu – In vivo – Ex vivo

96 Rôzne delenia génovej terapie Podľa prístupu

97 Vektory VírusovéNevírusovéBakteriálne

98

99 Vírusové vektory RetrovírusAdenovírus Adeno-associovaný vírus HerpesvírusAlfavírus...

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101 Nevírusové vektory Nahá alebo obalená DNA Rôzne fyzikochemické transportné systémy

102 Nevírusové vektory PlazmidyPCR produkty Injekcia nahej DNA Elektroporácia Gene gun Lipoplexy Polyplexy Oligodeoxynukleotidy

103 Bakteriálne vektory Baktofekcia – Listeria – Escherichia – Salmonella Alternatívna génová terapia

104 Baktofekcia

105 Alternatívna génová terapia

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107 Klinika 1990 – prvá klinická štúdia Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) Retrovírusový vektor Integrácia do chromozómu Ex vivo

108 Klinika

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120 Problémy GT Etické Prenos génu – Účinnosť – Špecificita – Bezpečnosť – Regulácia expresie

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122 September 11, 2001 February 15-16, 2001

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