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Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Copyright © 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Copyright © 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Teresa Audesirk Gerald Audesirk Bruce E. Byers

2 Chapter 3 Opener Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

3 Table 3-1 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

4 Figure 3-1 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Dehydration synthesis

5 Figure 3-2 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Hydrolysis

6 Figure 3-3 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. hydrogen bond hydroxyl group water glucose

7 Table 3-2 (part 1) Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

8 Table 3-2 (part 2) Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

9 Figure 3-4 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. glucose

10 Figure E3-1 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

11 Figure E3-2 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 Figure 3-5 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. galactosefructose

13 Figure 3-6 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. ribosedeoxyribose

14 Figure 3-7 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. glucosesucrosefructose Dehydration synthesis

15 Figure 3-8 (part 1) Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. starch globules

16 Figure 3-8 (part 2) Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

17 Figure 3-9 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. cellulose fiber wood is mostly celluloseplant cell with cell wallclose-up of cell wall hydrogen bonds cross-linking cellulose molecules bundle of cellulose molecules individual cellulose molecules

18 Figure 3-9a Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. wood is mostly cellulose

19 Figure 3-9b Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. plant cell with cell wall

20 Figure 3-9c Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. close-up of cell wall

21 Figure 3-9d Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. cellulose fiber hydrogen bonds cross-linking cellulose molecules bundle of cellulose molecules individual cellulose molecules

22 Figure 3-10 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

23 Figure 3-10 (part 1) Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

24 Figure 3-10 (part 2) Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

25 Figure 3-11 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. glycerol 3 water molecules triglyceride fatty acids

26 Figure 3-12a Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Fat

27 Figure 3-12b Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Wax

28 Figure 3-13 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

29 Figure 3-14 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

30 Figure 3-15 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. (hydrophilic) fatty acid tails polar head glycerol backbone (hydrophobic)

31 Figure 3-16 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. estrogen testosteronecholesterol

32 Figure E3-3 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

33 Table 3-3 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

34 Figure 3-17a Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Hair

35 Figure 3-17b Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Horn

36 Figure 3-17c Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Silk

37 Figure 3-18 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. amino group carboxylic acid group variable group hydrogen

38 Figure 3-19a Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. aspartic acid (asp) hydrophilic functional groups glutamic acid (glu)

39 Figure 3-19b Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. phenylalanine (phe) hydrophobic functional groups leucine (leu)

40 Figure 3-19c Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. sulfur-containing functional group (can form disulfide bridges) cysteine (cys)

41 Figure 3-20 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. peptide bond amino acid peptidewater amino group amino group carboxylic acid group

42 Figure 3-21 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. (a) Primary structure: The sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. heme group hydrogen bond helix (d) Quaternary structure: Individual polypeptides are linked to one another by hydrogen bonds or disulfide bridges. (c) Tertiary structure: Folding of the helix results from hydrogen bonds with surrounding water molecules and disulfide bridges between cysteine amino acids. (b) Secondary structure: Usually maintained by hydrogen bonds, which shape this helix.

43 Figure 3-22 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. pleated sheet hydrogen bond

44 Figure 3-23 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. keratin

45 Figure E3-4 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. protofibril single hair enlargement of single hair microfibril hydrogen bonds helix of single keratin molecule disulfide bridges hair cell

46 Figure E3-5 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

47 Figure 3-24 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. phosphate sugar base

48 Figure 3-25 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. phosphate sugar base

49 Figure 3-26 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. hydrogen bonds

50 Figure 3-27 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.


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