# Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

## Presentation on theme: "Arterial Blood Gas Analysis"— Presentation transcript:

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

Learning outcomes By the end of this session you should understand:
The normal ranges for arterial blood gas values How to use the 5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation Some of the common causes of arterial blood gas abnormalities and what to do to correct them

5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation

5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation
How is the patient? Will provide useful clues to help with interpretation of the results

5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation
How is the patient? Will provide useful clues to help with interpretation of the results Assess oxygenation Is the patient hypoxaemic? The PaO2 should be > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) breathing air and about 10 kPa less than the % inspired concentration

5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation
How is the patient? Will provide useful clues to help with interpretation of the results Assess oxygenation Is the patient hypoxaemic? The PaO2 should be > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) breathing air and about 10 kPa less than the % inspired concentration Determine the pH (or H+ concentration) Is the patient acidaemic; pH < 7.35 (H+ > 45 nmol l-1) Is the patient alkalaemic; pH > 7.45 (H+ < 35 nmol l-1) respiratory component

5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation
How is the patient? Will provide useful clues to help with interpretation of the results Assess oxygenation Is the patient hypoxaemic? The PaO2 should be > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) breathing air and about 10 kPa less than the % inspired concentration Determine the pH (or H+ concentration) Is the patient acidaemic; pH < 7.35 (H+ > 45 nmol l-1) Is the patient alkalaemic; pH > 7.45 (H+ < 35 nmol l-1) Determine the respiratory component If the pH < 7.35, is the PaCO2 > 6.0 kPa (45 mmHg) – respiratory acidosis If the pH > 7.45, is the PaCO2 < 4.7 kPa (35 mmHg) – respiratory alkalosis

5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation
How is the patient? Will provide useful clues to help with interpretation of the results Assess oxygenation Is the patient hypoxaemic? The PaO2 should be > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) breathing air and about 10 kPa less than the % inspired concentration Determine the pH (or H+ concentration) Is the patient acidaemic; pH < 7.35 (H+ > 45 nmol l-1) Is the patient alkalaemic; pH > 7.45 (H+ < 35 nmol l-1) Determine the respiratory component If the pH < 7.35, is the PaCO2 > 6.0 kPa (45 mmHg) – respiratory acidosis If the pH > 7.45, is the PaCO2 < 4.7 kPa (35 mmHg) – respiratory alkalosis Determine the metabolic component If the pH < 7.35, is the HCO3- < 22 mmol l-1 (base excess < -2 mmol l-1) – metabolic acidosis If the pH > 7.45, is the HCO3- > 26 mmol l-1 (base excess > +2 mmol l-1) – metabolic alkalosis

Case study 1 Initial Information
A 21-year-old woman is thrown from her horse at a local event. On the way to hospital she has become increasingly drowsy and the paramedics have inserted an oropharyngeal airway and given high-flow oxygen via a face-mask. An arterial blood gas sample has been taken.

Case study 1 (continued)
Initial Information A 21-year-old woman is thrown from her horse at a local event. On the way to hospital she has become increasingly drowsy and the paramedics have inserted an oropharyngeal airway and given high-flow oxygen via a face-mask. An arterial blood gas sample has been taken. Step 1: How is the patient?

Case study 1 (continued)
Initial Information A 21-year-old woman is thrown from her horse at a local event. On the way to hospital she has become increasingly drowsy and the paramedics have inserted an oropharyngeal airway and given high-flow oxygen via a face-mask. An arterial blood gas sample has been taken. Step 1: How is the patient? The reduced level of consciousness will impair oxygenation and ventilation, causing an increased PaCO2 , a respiratory acidosis

Case study 1 (continued)
Initial Information A 21-year-old woman is thrown from her horse at a local event. On the way to hospital she has become increasingly drowsy and the paramedics have inserted an oropharyngeal airway and given high-flow oxygen via a face-mask. An arterial blood gas sample has been taken. Step 1: How is the patient? The reduced level of consciousness will impair oxygenation and ventilation, causing an increased PaCO2 , a respiratory acidosis There is unlikely to be much compensation (change in bicarbonate) because of the acuteness of the situation

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now?

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now? Step 2: Assess oxygenation Is the patient hypoxaemic? The PaO2 should be about 10 kPa less than the % inspired concentration

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now?

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now? Step 3: Determine the pH (or H+ concentration) Is the patient acidaemic; pH < 7.35? Is the patient alkalaemic; pH > 7.45?

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now?

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now? Step 4: Determine the respiratory component If the pH < 7.35, is the PaCO2 > 6.0 kPa (45 mmHg)? – respiratory acidosis If the pH > 7.45, is the PaCO2 < 4.7 kPa (35 mmHg)? – respiratory alkalosis

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now?

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 What are you going to do now? Step 5: Determine the metabolic component If the pH < 7.35, is the HCO3- < 22 mmol l-1 (base excess < -2 mmol l-1) – metabolic acidosis If the pH > 7.45, is the HCO3- > 26 mmol l-1 (base excess > +2 mmol l-1) – metabolic alkalosis

Case study 1 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) normal values PaO kPa > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa 4.7 – 6.0 kPa Bicarbonate mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 Base excess mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 In summary: An acute respiratory acidosis with impaired oxygenation. 21

Case study 2 Initial Information
A 60-year-old man is brought to the ED after a witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The paramedics arrived after 7 min, during which CPR had not been attempted. His initial rhythm was VF and the paramedics subsequently restored a spontaneous circulation after the 3rd shock. On arrival: Intubated, ventilated with 50% oxygen HR 120 min-1, BP 150/95 mmHg Comatose (GCS 3) Use the 5-step approach to analyse the results of an arterial blood sample

Case study 2 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 50% (FiO2 0.5) normal values PaO kPa (56 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO2 6.2 kPa (47 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1

Case study 2 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 50% (FiO2 0.5) normal values PaO kPa (56 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO2 6.2 kPa (47 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 In summary: This is a typical ABG result after prolonged cardiac arrest. There is a mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis – the predominant component is metabolic, with significant impairment of oxygenation.

Case study 3 Initial Information
A 65-year-old man with severe COPD has been found collapsed in the respiratory unit. On initial assessment by the ward nurse he is apnoeic but has an easily palpable carotid pulse. The nurse is attempting to ventilate his lungs with a bag-mask and supplemental oxygen (with reservoir) and has called the cardiac arrest team. On arrival: Oropharyngeal airway, ventilated with bag-mask, oxygen at 15 l min-1 Carotid pulse palpable, 90 min-1, SpO2 99% Comatose (GCS 3) Use the 5-step approach to analyse the results of an arterial blood sample

Case study 3 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 85% (FiO2 0.85) estimated normal values PaO kPa (147 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa (135 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO3- 36 mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1

Case study 3 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 85% (FiO2 0.85) estimated normal values PaO kPa (147 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa (135 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO3- 36 mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 In summary: The significant acidaemia (pH 7.10) indicate an additional acute respiratory acidosis as a result of the respiratory arrest. In the pre-existing compensated chronic respiratory acidosis, the pH would have been close to normal.

Case study 4 Initial Information
A 75-year-old woman is admitted to the ED following a VF cardiac arrest, witnessed by paramedics. This had been preceded by 30 min of severe central chest pain. Spontaneous circulation restored after 2 shocks, but the patient remained apnoeic and unresponsive. The paramedics intubated her trachea and ventilated her with an automatic ventilator. On arrival: Tube confirmed in trachea, tidal volume of 900 ml, rate of 18 breaths min-1, 100% oxygen Pulse 100 min-1, BP 90/54 mmHg Comatose (GCS 3) Use the 5-step approach to analyse the results of an arterial blood sample

Case study 4 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen % (FiO2 1.0) normal values PaO kPa (192 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa (20 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE - 4 mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1

Case study 4 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen % (FiO2 1.0) normal values PaO kPa (192 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa (20 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE - 4 mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 In summary: A respiratory alkalosis, mild metabolic acidosis and impaired oxygenation.

Case study 5 Initial Information On arrival:
An 18-year-old insulin dependent diabetic is admitted to the ED. He has been vomiting for 48 h and because he was unable to eat, he has taken no insulin. On arrival: Breathing spontaneously RR 35 min-1, oxygen 4 l min-1 via Hudson mask, SpO2 98% HR 130 min-1, BP 90/65 mmHg GCS 12 (E3, M5, V4) Use the 5-step approach to analyse the results of an arterial blood sample

Case study 5 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen % (FiO2 0.3) estimated normal values PaO kPa (129 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa (19 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 The blood glucose is 30 mmol l-1 and there are ketones +++ in the urine

Case study 5 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen % (FiO2 0.3) estimated normal values PaO kPa (129 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO kPa (19 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 The blood glucose is 30 mmol l-1 and there are ketones +++ in the urine In summary: These blood gas results are consistent with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Further evidence is the presence of ketones in his urine and the very high blood glucose. There is a primary metabolic acidosis with partial compensation provided by the respiratory alkalosis.

Case study 6 Initial Information
A 75-year-old man is on the surgical ward 2 days after a laparotomy for a perforated sigmoid colon secondary to diverticular disease. He has become increasingly hypotensive over the last 6 h, despite ml 0.9% saline. On arrival: RR 35 min-1, SpO2 92% on 6 l min-1 oxygen via facemask HR 120 min-1, sinus tachycardia, warm peripheries, BP 70/40 mmHg Urine output 90 ml in the last 6 h GCS 13 (E3, M6, V4) Use the 5-step approach to analyse the results of an arterial blood sample

Case study 6 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) estimated normal values PaO kPa (62 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO2 4.5 kPa (34 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1

Case study 6 (continued)
Arterial blood gas analysis reveals: Inspired oxygen 40% (FiO2 0.4) estimated normal values PaO kPa (62 mmHg) > 10 kPa (75 mmHg) on air pH – 7.45 PaCO2 4.5 kPa (34 mmHg) 4.7 – 6.0 kPa (35 – 45 mmHg) HCO mmol l – 26 mmol l-1 BE mmol l-1 +/- 2 mmol l-1 In summary: There is a primary metabolic acidosis with slight compensation provided by the mild respiratory alkalosis. The degree of this is probably limited by the presence of an acute abdomen. The most likely diagnosis is sepsis syndrome secondary to intra-abdominal infection. The plasma lactate would be elevated.

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Summary This workshop has covered:
The terms used to describe the results of arterial blood gas analysis The normal ranges for arterial blood gas values How respiration and metabolism are linked How to use the 5-step approach to arterial blood gas interpretation Some of the common causes of arterial blood gas abnormalities and what to do to correct them

Advanced Life Support Course Slide set