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How do nurses engage in online learning? shalni gulati city university (department of continuing education)

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Presentation on theme: "How do nurses engage in online learning? shalni gulati city university (department of continuing education)"— Presentation transcript:

1 How do nurses engage in online learning? shalni gulati city university (department of continuing education)

2 Input: Course design Lecture and reading material Website links Interactive online quizzes Online collaborative / individual activities Process Individual Reading Interactive online quizzes Participation in asynchronous online Discussions and collaborative tasks Output Complete the required tasks including: Essays Projects Participation in online discussions Popular Online Pedagogy in Formal Higher Education This linear learning sequence assumes the same input-output model for knowledge construction. It assumes that all learners engage in the same learning processes to achieve the given outcomes. Here the emphasis is on learning processes and outcomes that are visible and can be assessed by the tutor.

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4 Qualitative Research Sample (nurses) Voluntary invitation from post graduate & post registration nurse learners: 3 RGNs on a post-registration online course with monthly f2f workshops; course uses PBL approach 4 (science graduates) student nurses on a ‘blended-mode’ postgraduate diploma in nursing; course uses P/EBL approach for inter-professional learning with medical students 1 (postgraduate) nurse trainer on a MSc in Adult Education with two online modules on e-tutoring; course uses a discursive approach on tutor-defined topics 21 additional participants from PG courses in business, digital entrepreneurship, online tutoring, adult education, geographic information, information science

5 Research Methodology Constructivist Paradigm (How do learners engage with online learning?): Personal Construct Theory (Kelly 1970) Shalni : Eliciting elements What are the different things you did to learn in your online course? Shalni : Eliciting elements What are the different things you did to learn in your online course?

6 1 st Interview a ) Eliciting Elements e1 Access internet for databases & websites (Silent) e2 tutor at City e3 read the online discussions What are the different things you did to learn in your online course?

7 b)Eliciting Constructs e1 Access internet for databases & websites This gives me a variety of formats for learning Interactive learning (with the computer) This keeps me awake & it is not boring Answer is more instant e2 tutor at City; e3 Read the online discussions This gives me text for my learning Linear learning (with people) Sometimes boring Answer is delayed Does JA a silent participant feel she can rely on herself more than others for her learning? Does she gain more from self-learning? Why does she feel learning with other people is boring and linear? Is there a deeper construct of control and self-reliance that influences her decision not to participate in online discussions?

8 c) The Repertory Grid

9 E5 Go to university library E3 Read the online discussions E12 Learning on my own (alone: no one else to discuss with) E11 Search for answers on my own E13 Manage time for study & work E1 Access internet databases & websites E14 Think & critically analyse for essays E11 Search for answers on my own E3 Read the online discussions Elements E8 Relying on mentors & colleagues for questions in the course E4 friends on the course E2 tutor at City E13 Manage time for study & work E9 Reading the case studies (PBL problems increasing all the time) E15 Dealing with computer malfunction E7 3day workshops with the tutors E16 ed assignments to tutor for feedback E6 Download, photocopy & order articles E7 3 day workshop with tutor E10 reading the links provided by the tutor My active learning : I have the control and feel open to learning Relying on others is Passive learning I feel a loneliness in the group; feel less open to express; Less my control Mental organisation of my learning: I do this on my own Material organisation of my learning: Experts are important here Reliance on others? Others are reliable Others are not reliable Flexibility & variety are good Time management around work I prefer to be an independent learner

10 Pc10a I rely on others Pc11a Unsupportive and discouraging for my learning Pc8b I can’t rely on this for my learning Pc9b Control is dependent on others Constructs Pc15a This is what I want Pc4b This keeps me awake it is not boring Pc17a This is good management of my time Pc13a More applicable & satisfactory Pc8a I can rely on this for my learning Pc9a This is under my control Pc5b Answer is more instant Pc3b Interactive learning with the computer Pc14a No disturbance and interruption in my learning Pc1a I am getting information here Pc7a More important for my learning Pc10b I rely on my time Pc11b Very supportive for my learning Pc8a I can rely on this for my learning Pc9a This is under my control Pc6a I have no opportunity to share my learning with others Pc6b I can share my learning with others Pc2a This gives me text for my learning Pc18a Administrative process (of managing time) for my learning Pc2b This gives me a variety of formats for my learning Pc18b Getting an in-depth picture of what I am learning Pc15b This is less focused Pc4a Sometimes boring Pc17b This is poor management of my time Pc13b Less applicable Pc8b I can’t rely on this for my learning Pc9b Control is dependent on others Pc5a Answer is delayed Pc3a Linear learning with people Pc14b This can distract me Pc1b I am sending information here Pc7b Less important for my learning Pc12b Theory learning Pc16b I did not feel isolated Pc18b Getting in-depth picture of what I am learning Pc12a Practice oriented learning Pc16a I felt isolated sometimes Pc18a Administrative process (of managing time) for my learning My internal locus of control is strong High self-reliance May be due to My past school Experiences Others have the control I have the control Linear learning is boring I feel free & open to share with others Practical learning may have limited access to resources Variety engages me I don’t feel free & open to share with others External locus of control is weak Theoretical learning easy access to resources & opportunity

11 Pc10a I rely on others Pc11a Unsupportive and discouraging for my learning Pc8b I can’t rely on this for my learning Pc9b Control is dependent on others JA Pc15a This is what I want Pc4b This keeps me awake it is not boring Pc17a This is good management of my time Pc13a More applicable & satisfactory Pc8a I can rely on this for my learning Pc9a This is under my control Pc5b Answer is more instant Pc3b Interactive learning with the computer Pc14a No disturbance and interruption in my learning Pc1a I am getting information here Pc7a More important for my learning Pc10b I rely on my time Pc11b Very supportive for my learning Pc8a I can rely on this for my learning Pc9a This is under my control Pc6a I have no opportunity to share my learning with others Pc6b I can share my learning with others Pc2a This gives me text for my learning Pc18a Administrative process (of managing time) for my learning Pc2b This gives me a variety of formats for my learning Pc18b Getting an in-depth picture of what I am learning Pc15b This is less focused Pc4a Sometimes boring Pc17b This is poor management of my time Pc13b Less applicable Pc8b I can’t rely on this for my learning Pc9b Control is dependent on others Pc5a Answer is delayed Pc3a Linear learning with people Pc14b This can distract me Pc1b I am sending information here Pc7b Less important for my learning Pc12b Theory learning Pc16b I did not feel isolated Pc18b Getting in-depth picture of what I am learning Pc12a Practice oriented learning Pc16a I felt isolated sometimes Pc18a Administrative process (of managing time) for my learning e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7 e8 e9 e10 e11 e12 e13 e14 e15 e16 CONTROL RELIANCE MOTIVATION FREEDOM & OPENESS FLEXIBILITY 

12 Reading online discussions is beneficial to gain different perspectives and web-links. My participating in online discussions may not yield a reply. It will therefore be an incomplete process of my learning (JA) Me & my learning space My control Self-reliance Personal organisation Others control Low reliance on others I gain from Organisational support Others are Not always Receptive To me I value and trust experts input I sometimes Lack confidence To say things In the open A silent online discussion participant

13 My learning space Personal management of learning & responsibilities to others are interlinked entities Trust in the internet and others is key to the initiating choice of learning goals and ongoing evolution of goals and development of learning focus Others are key in helping to identify gaps in her thinking thus enabling critical thinking and construction All learning processes are with others in mind and have a mix of formal and informal learning and are a fluid process An active online discussion participant Tutor presence during online communication reduces opportunities for building ideas through informal social engagement

14 I may or may not trust a source/people (conscious or subconscious) My natural learning method is through critical construction (conscious and subconscious process) Resources for my learning: Learning material and People T R U S T Is A D r i v er My aim is gain control through questioning, before accepting something as personal knowledge Questioning is driven by my need to question trust in a source (or people). The process helps me gain internal control My learning is the result of control trust in people and resources Others (like resources) are involved when I need confirmation/ feedback on my critical interpretation A moderate online discussion participant I do not trust WebCT communication It is being watched by the University. It has proved to be an unreliable tool for my learning

15 Control is an important dimension which may affect how one involves others in one’s learning The internal and external locus of control may vary b etween individuals Is influenced by their past learning experiences & personal life context Is influenced by course design Is influenced by opportunities to link theory and practice Is influenced by opportunities to make choices for one’s learning pathway Is influenced by practical (clinical) experiences Is influenced by Access to resources, peers and mentors So, how do nurses engage in online learning?

16 Emerging Themes IT access & E-literacy IT Access (where & when) E-literacy (how) VLE Reliance & Online discussions (trust) Learning space- Influenced by: Opportunities to link theory & practice Preferences for personal engagement Online & in isolation (JA) Online & with others (BW) Offline & in isolation (CD) Offline & with others (CL) External motivators and triggers for learning (library, home, practice setting) to regain control over ones learning time and space

17 Emerging Themes Accessing & Assessing resources online The beginning of knowledge construction (influenced by IT comfort & trust in IT) Using the internet as the driver of learning focus and goals Using own learning goals as driver to find resources online Using online resources to gain multiple perspectives & multiple for healthcare education practice Reading offline: Learning on my own? Cost of printing (a hindrance) ‘Interactive’ reading offline: processes of meaning making (analysis/deconstruction) Linking reading to learning goals (locus of control is actual practical experience) Reading as formalising practical experiences, intuitive & social knowledge Memory as important to check what is retained & becomes personal knowledge

18 Emerging Themes Emotions in Learning Feeling involved and feeling inside the experience Enjoyable and fun Boring vs. Exciting learning experiences Anxiety in online discussion Feeling isolated in a group Guilt is a driver Stress is a driver Feeling challenged Feeling “stupid”/inadequate about oneself and one’s abilities Self confidence Feeling safe Feeling open Feeling of achievement Feeling empowered or dis-empowered

19 Emerging Themes Issues for participation in online discussions Reasoning for participation in online discussion Pedagogical effectiveness & compulsory participation Opportunities to learn about others practice (relevance is important for meaningful sharing) Written text is representation of self: more permanent Language issues Contrived, declarative and surface statements: watched and judged by the tutor Emotionally Controlled Knowledge of others & Feeling of belonging Responsibility to each other for two-way communication Trust and Confidence in others Confidence in topic Time delayed communication: flexibility vs. feeling lost

20 Similarities & Differences Self direction in learning Preference to initiate and direct one’s social and individual learning Helps to feel involved and inside the experience Is influenced by ones locus of control in knowledge construction Influences how one makes theory-practice link Diversity in learner preference for engagement Involving others in my learning Learning on my own Learning through face to face interaction Using instead, to communicate with peers & tutors Develop personal relationships through informal face to face interactions after workshops Self or group reflective (formal/informal & face to face) discussions to link theory and practice

21 Others are central Others are triggers Learning resources give formalised opinions of others Tutors and mentors are involved in feedback and discussion Nurse learners report informal f2f discussion with colleagues and other learners to link theory and practice (planned & spontaneous) For nurses, patients needs drive learning needs & some control for knowledge construction is based in practice settings Active participantsActive-ModerateModerate Moderate-silentSilent Non-participants Differences between active, moderate & silent participants

22 Main Conclusions & Implications Online discussion is different from Face-to-face discussion Educators and learners may need to develop online communication skills, feeling comfortable with opening up and challenging each others, and develop learning relationships to this end Silent & Moderate online participants are also involved in active construction which may not always be visible to others Educators need to re-define active participation in learning Engagement in learning is a deeply personal and emotional process & Emotions are important drivers for learning Educators and mentors need a better understanding of these process and be both sensitive and challenging for individual learner progress

23 Main Conclusions & Implications (continued) Engagement is influenced by feeling of control over one’s learning Course designs & work placements need to offer more opportunities for learners to: Negotiate time for learning Time for IT access Choosing a learning space Choosing ways of using the internet resources to drive learning Technologies for mind-mapping and interactive reading Both formal and informal social reflection opportunities to link theory and practice Learning needs to be relevant to actual practice and the real world Work with practitioners to identify learning scenarios that are relevant to current practice and will have a positive impact on patient care Design activities that are challenging and exciting and not repetitive or dull Learner needs to be acknowledged for what they know and feel involved rather than being preached at!

24 Conclusion As we gain a deeper understanding of how learners construe meaning, we can build better learning spaces and strategies using appropriate technology A better understanding of individual learners construction calls for input from learners to negotiate their learning pathways For constructivism to be better understood in education, course design and technology need to enable and enthuse greater learner involvement for choosing and controlling their own learning pathways

25 thank you For further information of the study and past conference papers please see:

26 IT access & e-literacy Where When How Reliance trust Who IT Skill/Support Negotiating time between work & life commitments Full-time/ part-time/ distance learners IT comfort & VLE reliance Hospitals/ library/ University/ home Example of an Emerging Theme

27 Participation in Online discussions Reasoning for Online discussion in Course design Pedagogical effectiveness of compulsory participation Why not With whom Knowledge of others Individual & social issues:  Choice  Control  Power discourses  Relevance Why Emotions in learning Example of an Emerging Theme Skills for online communication Clarity, Language issues Overseas learners needs


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