Presentation on theme: "E3 237 Integrated Circuits for Wireless Communication Gaurab Banerjee Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,"— Presentation transcript:
E3 237 Integrated Circuits for Wireless Communication Gaurab Banerjee Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture 1: Introduction
Course Web Page: Class Timings: Tuesdays/Thursdays, IST, Room 1.08, ECE Bldg. Please be on Time! Office hours: To be determined after week 2 of classes, Currently by Appointment Class Mailing List: Please send me an with E3 237 in the subject line (follow this convention for all course related s) to get added to the class mailing list for announcements. Administrative Matters
Grading and Course Structure: 3 lecture-hours per week 2 homework assignments (10% of course grade) Midterm (25% of course grade) Project (5% on novelty, 15% on final report, 10% on group presentation) Final Examination (35% of course grade) TAs : TBA Text: No textbook: Please take notes in class, or make backup arrangements. Recommended references: 1) RF Microelectronics by B. Razavi (Pearson) 2) The Design Of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits by T. Lee (Cambridge University Press) Tentative Calendar: On Class Website. Administrative Matters
Course Contents System Level Concepts: Noise and Linearity. Concepts such as noise figure, 2-port noise parameters, IIP3. Cascaded noise figure and IIP3. The modeling of an RF system using these concepts. Receiver and Transmitter Architectures. Circuit Design: RLC Networks, Low Noise Amplifiers & Mixers Voltage Controlled Oscillators Phase Locked Loops and Synthesizers Power Amplifiers Case Studies: Cellular Transceiver Wireless LAN transceiver Millimeter wave transceiver
Connection to other courses E3 284: Digital VLSI Circuits E3 yyy: ICs for Wireline Commn. E3 zzz: ICs for Data Conversion E8 242: RF ICs and Systems Prerequisite: If you wish to take this course for credit and have not taken E3 238, you need to take my permission. It is recommended that students take the Digital VLSI Circuits course (Prof. Amrutur) and the RF Systems Course (Prof. Vinoy) before signing up for this course. E3 237:ICs for Wireless Commn. E3 238: Analog VLSI Systems
Frequencies and Applications 1 GHz 10 GHz 100 GHz Bluetooth a WLAN UWB GSM/CDMA 850 GSM/CDMA 1900 GPS 60 GHz c 77 GHz Radar Sub-THz imaging Many commercial applications span the 1-10 GHz frequency range. Higher f T s are pushing CMOS radios to higher frequencies, traditionally the domain of SiGe or III-V semiconductors Many interesting research problems, plenty of employment !!! 24 GHz Radar VHF/UHF Broadcasting Commercial CMOS Products 0.35 um0.25 um0.18 um0.13 um90/65/45 nm
An informal look at wireless
An iPod-nano Teardown....
..reveals many chips inside...
... including a Wireless LAN chip by Broadcom...
A more scientific look
A Broadcom 2.4 GHz WLAN Transceiver S. Khorram et. al., “A Fully Integrated SOC for b in 0.18-m CMOS”, IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, Dec (Broadcom Paper) Architecture: zero-IF with on-chip LPF for channel selection Super- heterodyne/low-IF architecture not chosen due to filter constraints. Gain = 88 dB, BW = 8 MHz, Noise Figure = dB, excluding T/R switch Integrated PA, T/R switch, RF Baluns and Baseband MAC
The Receiver LNA with on- chip balun Wideband RSSI for blocker estimation Narrowband RSSI for gain selection Active Gilbert mixer 5 th order Active RC LPF 8-b pipelined ADC
The Transmitter Class AB stage with balun for SE 50-Ohm output Current steering DAC for TX I/Q input Filtering of Data Converter image frequency SSB mixers for up-conversion
The Local Oscillator Crystal oscillator for Reference generation Integer-N frequency synthesis
Receiver Front-end 5 th order Active RC LPF – 8 MHz BW LNA – Dominates RX Noise Figure Programmable baseband Amplifiers Received Signal Strength Indicators 88 dB RX gain with 8 MHz BW 6-7 dB Noise Figure with T/R switch included
Transmitter Front-end 1-dB compression point Max. TX output power = 13 dBm I/Q mismatch causes EVM increase Out of Band Power due to Harmonics and Spurs in LO
LO Generation and Distribution Integer-N frequency synthesis 1.6 GHz VCO used to generate 2.4 GHz output – avoids LO Pulling 1 MHz channel spacing 1.6 GHz divided to 800 MHz and mixed with itself – provides 2.4 GHz. Spurs at 800 MHz and 4 GHz Tuned buffers needed in LO distribution
Low Noise Amplifier SE/Differential Conversion: Attenuation causes NF increase Source degeneration for input match Cascode input stage for gain, isolation, high frequency performance Tuned output loads
Power Amplifier Measure signal strength and adjust pre-amp gain Pseudo-differential cascodes Transformer coupled, tuned output stage Gate-biasing for optimum linearity
Key Transceiver Data: Receiver Fix PER at 8% for different data rates RX sensitivity = -88 dBm for 11 Mbps, -93 dBm for 2 Mbps Noise figure can be deduced from these sensitivity values IIP3 = -15 dBm for low gain, 6 dBm for high gain Noise Figure dominates performance at the lower end of the dynamic range Nonlinearities and non-ideal LO behavior dominates the higher end of the dynamic range