Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Diodes 1. Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Figure 3.1 The ideal diode: (a) diode.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Diodes 1. Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Figure 3.1 The ideal diode: (a) diode."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diodes 1

2 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Figure 3.1 The ideal diode: (a) diode circuit symbol; (b) i– v characteristic; (c) equivalent circuit in the reverse direction; (d) equivalent circuit in the forward direction.

3 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith3 Figure 3.2 The two modes of operation of ideal diodes and the use of an external circuit to limit the forward current (a) and the reverse voltage (b).

4 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith4 Figure 3.3 (a) Rectifier circuit. (b) Input waveform. (c) Equivalent circuit when v I  0. (d) Equivalent circuit when v I  0. (e) Output waveform.

5 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith5 Figure E3.1

6 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith6 Figure E3.2

7 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith7 Figure 3.4 Circuit and waveforms for Example 3.1.

8 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith8 Figure 3.5 Diode logic gates: (a) OR gate; (b) AND gate (in a positive-logic system).

9 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith9 Figure 3.6 Circuits for Example 3.2.

10 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith10 Figure E3.4

11 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith11 Figure E3.5

12 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith12 Figure 3.7 The i– v characteristic of a silicon junction diode.

13 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith13 Figure 3.8 The diode i– v relationship with some scales expanded and others compressed in order to reveal details.

14 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith14 Figure 3.9 Illustrating the temperature dependence of the diode forward characteristic. At a constant current, the voltage drop decreases by approximately 2 mV for every 1  C increase in temperature.

15 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith15 Figure E3.9

16 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith16 Figure 3.10 A simple circuit used to illustrate the analysis of circuits in which the diode is forward conducting.

17 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith17 Figure 3.11 Graphical analysis of the circuit in Fig. 3.10 using the exponential diode model.

18 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith18 Figure 3.12 Approximating the diode forward characteristic with two straight lines: the piecewise-linear model.

19 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith19 Figure 3.13 Piecewise-linear model of the diode forward characteristic and its equivalent circuit representation.

20 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith20 Figure 3.14 The circuit of Fig. 3.10 with the diode replaced with its piecewise-linear model of Fig. 3.13.

21 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith21 Figure 3.15 Development of the constant-voltage-drop model of the diode forward characteristics. A vertical straight line (B) is used to approximate the fast-rising exponential. Observe that this simple model predicts V D to within  0.1 V over the current range of 0.1 mA to 10 mA.

22 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith22 Figure 3.16 The constant-voltage-drop model of the diode forward characteristics and its equivalent-circuit representation.

23 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith23 Figure E3.12

24 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith24 Figure 3.17 Development of the diode small-signal model. Note that the numerical values shown are for a diode with n = 2.

25 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith25 Figure 3.18 (a) Circuit for Example 3.6. (b) Circuit for calculating the dc operating point. (c) Small-signal equivalent circuit.

26 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith26 Figure 3.19 Circuit for Example 3.7.

27 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith27 Figure E3.16

28 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith28 Table 3.1 Modeling the Diode Forward Characteristic

29 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith29 Table 3.1 (Continued)

30 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith30 Figure 3.20 Circuit symbol for a zener diode.

31 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith31 Figure 3.21 The diode i– v characteristic with the breakdown region shown in some detail.

32 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith32 Figure 3.22 Model for the zener diode.

33 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith33 Figure 3.23 (a) Circuit for Example 3.8. (b) The circuit with the zener diode replaced with its equivalent circuit model.

34 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith34 Figure 3.24 Block diagram of a dc power supply.

35 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith35 Figure 3.25 (a) Half-wave rectifier. (b) Equivalent circuit of the half-wave rectifier with the diode replaced with its battery-plus-resistance model. (c) Transfer characteristic of the rectifier circuit. (d) Input and output waveforms, assuming that r D ! R.

36 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith36 Figure 3.26 Full-wave rectifier utilizing a transformer with a center-tapped secondary winding: (a) circuit; (b) transfer characteristic assuming a constant-voltage-drop model for the diodes; (c) input and output waveforms.

37 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith37 Figure 3.27 The bridge rectifier: (a) circuit; (b) input and output waveforms.

38 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith38 Figure 3.28 (a) A simple circuit used to illustrate the effect of a filter capacitor. (b) Input and output waveforms assuming an ideal diode. Note that the circuit provides a dc voltage equal to the peak of the input sine wave. The circuit is therefore known as a peak rectifier or a peak detector.

39 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith39 Figure 3.29 Voltage and current waveforms in the peak rectifier circuit with CR @ T. The diode is assumed ideal.

40 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith40 Figure 3.30 Waveforms in the full-wave peak rectifier.

41 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith41 Figure 3.31 The “superdiode” precision half-wave rectifier and its almost-ideal transfer characteristic. Note that when v I > 0 and the diode conducts, the op amp supplies the load current, and the source is conveniently buffered, an added advantage. Not shown are the op-amp power supplies.

42 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith42 Figure 3.32 General transfer characteristic for a limiter circuit.

43 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith43 Figure 3.33 Applying a sine wave to a limiter can result in clipping off its two peaks.

44 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith44 Figure 3.34 Soft limiting.

45 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith45 Figure 3.35 A variety of basic limiting circuits.

46 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith46 Figure E3.27

47 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith47 Figure 3.36 The clamped capacitor or dc restorer with a square-wave input and no load.

48 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith48 Figure 3.37 The clamped capacitor with a load resistance R.

49 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith49 Figure 3.38 Voltage doubler: (a) circuit; (b) waveform of the voltage across D 1.

50 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith50 Figure 3.39 Simplified physical structure of the junction diode. (Actual geometries are given in Appendix A.)

51 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith51 Figure 3.40 Two-dimensional representation of the silicon crystal. The circles represent the inner core of silicon atoms, with +4 indicating its positive charge of +4q, which is neutralized by the charge of the four valence electrons. Observe how the covalent bonds are formed by sharing of the valence electrons. At 0 K, all bonds are intact and no free electrons are available for current conduction.

52 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith52 Figure 3.41 At room temperature, some of the covalent bonds are broken by thermal ionization. Each broken bond gives rise to a free electron and a hole, both of which become available for current conduction.

53 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith53 Figure 3.42 A bar of intrinsic silicon (a) in which the hole concentration profile shown in (b) has been created along the x-axis by some unspecified mechanism.

54 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith54 Figure 3.43 A silicon crystal doped by a pentavalent element. Each dopant atom donates a free electron and is thus called a donor. The doped semiconductor becomes n type.

55 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith55 Figure 3.44 A silicon crystal doped with a trivalent impurity. Each dopant atom gives rise to a hole, and the semiconductor becomes p type.

56 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith56 Figure 3.45 (a) The pn junction with no applied voltage (open-circuited terminals). (b) The potential distribution along an axis perpendicular to the junction.

57 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith57 Figure 3.46 The pn junction excited by a constant-current source I in the reverse direction. To avoid breakdown, I is kept smaller than I S. Note that the depletion layer widens and the barrier voltage increases by V R volts, which appears between the terminals as a reverse voltage.

58 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith58 Figure 3.47 The charge stored on either side of the depletion layer as a function of the reverse voltage V R.

59 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith59 Figure 3.48 The pn junction excited by a reverse-current source I, where I > I S. The junction breaks down, and a voltage V Z, with the polarity indicated, develops across the junction.

60 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith60 Figure 3.49 The pn junction excited by a constant-current source supplying a current I in the forward direction. The depletion layer narrows and the barrier voltage decreases by V volts, which appears as an external voltage in the forward direction.

61 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith61 Figure 3.50 Minority-carrier distribution in a forward-biased pn junction. It is assumed that the p region is more heavily doped than the n region; N A @ N D.

62 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith62 Figure 3.51 The SPICE diode model.

63 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith63 Figure 3.52 Equivalent-circuit model used to simulate the zener diode in SPICE. Diode D 1 is ideal and can be approximated in SPICE by using a very small value for n (say n = 0.01).

64 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith64 Figure 3.53 Capture schematic of the 5-V dc power supply in Example 3.10.

65 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith65 Figure 3.54 The voltage v C across the smoothing capacitor C and the voltage v O across the load resistor R load = 200  in the 5-V power supply of Example 3.10.

66 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith66 Figure 3.55 The output-voltage waveform from the 5-V power supply (in Example 3.10) for various load resistances: R load = 500 , 250 , 200 , and 150 . The voltage regulation is lost at a load resistance of 150 .

67 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith67 Figure E3.35 (a) Capture schematic of the voltage-doubler circuit (in Exercise 3.35).

68 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith68 Figure E3.35 (Continued) (b) Various voltage waveforms in the voltage-doubler circuit. The top graph displays the input sine-wave voltage signal, the middle graph displays the voltage across diode D 1, and the bottom graph displays the voltage that appears at the output.

69 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith69 Figure P3.2

70 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith70 Figure P3.3

71 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith71 Figure P3.4 (Continued)

72 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith72 Figure P3.4 (Continued)

73 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith73 Figure P3.5

74 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith74 Figure P3.6

75 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith75 Figure P3.9

76 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith76 Figure P3.10

77 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith77 Figure P3.16

78 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith78 Figure P3.23

79 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith79 Figure P3.25

80 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith80 Figure P3.26

81 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith81 Figure P3.28

82 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith82 Figure P3.54

83 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith83 Figure P3.56

84 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith84 Figure P3.57

85 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith85 Figure P3.58

86 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith86 Figure P3.59

87 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith87 Figure P3.63

88 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith88 Figure P3.82

89 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith89 Figure P3.91

90 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith90 Figure P3.92

91 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith91 Figure P3.93

92 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith92 Figure P3.97

93 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith93 Figure P3.98

94 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith94 Figure P3.102

95 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith95 Figure P3.103

96 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith96 Figure P3.105

97 Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith97 Figure P3.108


Download ppt "Diodes 1. Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith2 Figure 3.1 The ideal diode: (a) diode."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google