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"To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Presentation title (IMPORT THROUGH MENU View or Insert -> Header & Footer)

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Presentation on theme: ""To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Presentation title (IMPORT THROUGH MENU View or Insert -> Header & Footer)"— Presentation transcript:

1 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Presentation title (IMPORT THROUGH MENU View or Insert -> Header & Footer)

2 " To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Matthias Gerber, Reichle & De-Massari AG September, 2010

3 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" - New application  new demands - Susceptibility to disturbances ↗ - Marketing smog screen. STP vs. UTP Motivation

4 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" t 1 1 0 0 1010 U=2 V 0 0 1 01 0 0 1 12 Bit = 12 Pulses NRZ Coding Modulation: e.g. PAM 16 12 Bit = 3 Pulses Bits 1111 1110 1101 1100 1011 1010 1001 1000 0111 0110 0101 0100 0011 0010 0001 0000 U = 0.13 V 4*t 110000101001 PAM 16 Modulation Reduces signal bandwidth, increases susceptibility to noise

5 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" 10 MHz Manchester Coding 20 MSymbols/s 417 MHz PAM 16 800 MSymbols/s 10GBase-T 62 MHz PAM 5 125 MSymbols/s 1000Base-T 31 MHz MLT-3 125 MSymbols/s 100Base-TX Signal Level 0V 1V -1V 0.5V 0.13V 1.0V 1.7V Spectral Bandwidth 10Base-T Development signal strength senders

6 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Signal Level 0V 1V -1V 10Base-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T 10GBASE-T Manchester Coding MLT-3 PAM 5 PAM 16 0.27V 0.81V 10 MHz IL= 6.5 dB 20 MSymbols/s 25 MSymbols/s 125 MSymbols/s 800 MSymbols/s Spectral Bandwidth 31 MHz IL= 11.4 dB 62 MHz IL= 16.3 dB 417 MHz IL= 44.7 dB 0.08V 0.0008V 50x Development signal strength receivers

7 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" C par M ind -U C I dist /2 UCUC U D =0 I dist1 I dist2 U C2 U C1 U D >0 U D = U C2 – U C1 Unbalance atten. = 20*Log(U D /U dist ) Perfectly balancedImperfectly balanced I dist I dist1 I dist2 U dist Disturbance I dist I dist /2 U dist Noise: common mode disturbances

8 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" V 20m Conduit / Raceway Cable Test setup: 10GBase-T 1000Base- T Coupling: raceway to UTP cabling

9 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Frequency a coupl Unbalance Unscreened 0 dB P Com P Dif P‘ Com P Com P Dif P‘ Com Coupling attenuation a coupl =10*Log(P Com /P Dif ) Unbalance attenuation Screening attenuation Unbalance Screened Screening attenuation New Parameter: Coupling attenuation(CA)

10 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Schematic drawing of the test set-up for coupling attenuation 68 dB The coupling attenuation of the link is determined by means of the absorber clamp method according to EN 50289-1-15:2004: ISO/IEC 11801 Amendment 1 (2008-04), Class E A limits 30-25060.3-20lg(f) ISO/IEC 24702 Industrial Premises MICE Categorization: E 1 (Office)  a coupl = 40 dB E 2 (Light industry)  a coupl = 50 dB E 3 (Factory floor)  a coupl = 60 dB CA @ ISO/IEC 11801 Amd.1 (2008-04)

11 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"  Primarily between same colored pairs (same lay length)  Difficulties to test in the field  X-Talk of neighboring channels  Increases in parallel runs New parameter: Alien Crosstalk (AXT)

12 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Active DSP Echo- and NEXT – compensation NEXT:>40 dB FEXT:>25 dB RL:>55 dB 10GBase-T Transmission Alien Crosstalk No synchronization  no active compensation for Alien Crosstalk Active Compensation with 10GBase-T

13 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" What EMC properties do shielded and unshielded cabling components possess? What special measures are necessary to take for screened or unscreened systems? Which advantages and disadvantages are linked to screened or unscreened systems? Give guidance to planners or end users to prevent confusion and uncertainty when select systems. Providing a fair and independent comparison of the EMC behavior of screened and unscreened cabling Independent LAB’s Study goals

14 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" The study was commissioned by: The study was carried out by: GHMT AG In der Kolling 13 66450 Bexbach www.ghmt.de info@ghmt.de

15 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Cabling sample selection

16 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" 4x Switch7x Server Manufacturer Extreme Networks IBM Typ Summit X450a-24t X3550 Slot Summit XGM2-2bt INTEL 10Gigabit AT Server Adapter Active components used

17 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Server Patch cord Equipmen t cord Installatio n cable Switch Server Equipmen t cord Patch panel System set-up schematic

18 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" System set-up anechoic chamber

19 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"

20 EN 55022 Tests the ability of a device not to disturb other equipment in their normal operation Emission: Radiated field strength

21 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" 10GBase-T: System 02 (U/UTP) vs. System 05 (S/FTP) Emission: Radiated field strength

22 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Emission: Radiated field strength 1000Base-T: System 02 (U/UTP) vs. System 05 (S/FTP)

23 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Spectrum 1000Base-T Spectrum 10GBase-T 10GBase-T vs. 1000Base-T: System 02 (U/UTP) Emission: Radiated field strength

24 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" No significant differences in terms of EM emission ! single-sided earthing double-sided earthing 10GBase-T: System 05 (S/FTP) different earthing Emission: Radiated field strength

25 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" The better the EMC quality of the cabling, the lower the radiated radio-frequency disturbance field strength. 10 Gbps @ 800 MHz 10GBase-T: Overview Emission: Radiated field strength

26 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Screened cabling will be able to transmit 10GBase-T and fulfil Class B emission limits (for residential areas) Unscreened cabling with 10GBase-T fulfils Class A emission requirements (for business areas, e.g. dedicated Office spaces, data centre) The better the CA (and therefore the screening efficiency) the smaller the radiated field strength. No recognizable improvement of the emission from double sided earthing to single sided earthing. 10GBase-T: Summary Emission: Radiated field strength

27 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EN 61000-4-3: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test EN 61000-4-4: Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test EN 61000-4-6: Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields EN 61000-4-8: Power frequency magnetic field immunity test EN 61000-4-2:Electrostatic discharge EMC immunity tests performed

28 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Stress level 1 Stress level 4 Stress level 3 Stress level 2 Test criterion: example plot

29 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Excerpt for criterion E (Electromagnetic compatibility) MICE-Classification EN 50173-1:2008-04

30 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EN 61000 -4-3 Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in the presence of electromagnetic fields Immunity: Radiated, radio- frequency, electromagnetic field

31 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" E3E3 E1/E2E1/E2 Immunity: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field, Overview

32 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" All screened systems allow for 10Gpbs operation in E1 / E2 environments. For harsher environments, an S-FTP screen construction is necessary. Double-sided earthing does not lead to any improvement over single sided earthing. Unscreened systems meet the requirements of class E 1 / E 2 for 1 Gbps. For 10Gbps additional protection measures are necessary. Immunity: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field, Summary

33 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Practical test: - Walkie-talkies - - mobile phone - - GSM card - Walkie-talkies, mobile phone, GSM card Practical test: 10GBase-T

34 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"  Interference (abort data transmission) No interference observed Usage of a wireless communication device in proximity of an unscreened cabling (e.g. in a data center) can impair the data transmission. Walkie-talkies, mobile phone, GSM card Practical test: 10GBase-T

35 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EN 61000 -4-4 Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in proximity of disturbing power lines and equipment Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test

36 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" E3E3 E1E1 E2E2 10GBase-T, Overview Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test

37 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" E3E3 E2E2 E1E1 10GBase-T, Earthing influence Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test

38 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" All screened systems allow for 10Gpbs operation in all environments (E1 – E3). Quality of the screen improves immunity. Double-sided earthing does improve immunity against fast transients over single sided earthing. The screen connection has to be continuous from Switch to Server (no U-UTP patch cords). Unscreened systems meet the requirements of class E 1 for 1 Gbps. For 10Gbps operation carefully routing necessary to separate from power cables 10GBase-T, Summary Immunity: Fast transients (burst) test

39 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Practical test: - fluorescent lamp - Fluorescent lamp Practical test: 10GBase-T

40 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"  Interference (abort data transmission) No interference observed Fluorescent lamps can impair the 10GBase-T in U-UTP systems, when distance between data cable and power cable or fluorescent lamp is not sufficient. Fluorescent lamp Practical test: 10GBase-T

41 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Experiment: -mesh cable tray- D = 0 – 50 cm 10GBase-T, Fast transients (burst) test Experiment: Mesh cable tray

42 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" E3E3 E1E1 E2E2 distance between power and data transmission cables 10GBase-T, Fast transients (burst) test, Overview Experiment: Mesh cable tray

43 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Screened systems meet the environmental class E 3 at all distances, even without separation. For unscreened systems separation to power cabling is essential. For class E 1 distances must be ≥ 30 cm. The standardized capacitive coupling clamp simulates a cable installation with power and date cable very near together (< 1cm). 10GBase-T, Fast transients (burst) test, Summary Experiment: Mesh cable tray

44 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EN 61000 -4-6 Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in proximity disturbing power lines Immunity test: Conducted disturbances, induced by radio- frequency fields

45 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Immunity test: Conducted disturbances, induced by radio- frequency fields, overview E3E3 E 1 /E 2

46 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" The screened systems meet the requirements of MICE class E 3 for 1000Base-T and 10GBase-T. Higher quality screening provides higher immunity against induced radio frequency fields. Double-sided earthing does not improve the immunity significantly over single-sided earthing. Unscreened systems meet the requirements for E 1 / E 2 environments in the 1Gbps operation mode. For 10Gbps additional protection against conducted induced radio-frequency fields is needed. Immunity test: Conducted disturbances, induced by radio- frequency fields, Summary

47 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EN 61000 -4-8 Immunity: Power-frequency magnetic field Tests the ability of a device to operate normally in the presence of large magnetic fields

48 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" E3E3 E1E1 E2E2 10GBase-T, Overview Immunity: Power-frequency magnetic field

49 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" All systems tested meet the requirements of MICE class E 3 in all three operation modes. The equalizing currents ascertained with screened systems do not have any impact on data transmission. Equalizing currents can be reduced by double-sided earthing. 10GBase-T, Overview Immunity: Power-frequency magnetic field

50 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EN 61000-4-2 Immunity: Electrostatic discharge

51 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" * Conducted discharge was not tested for U/UTP systems E 1, E 2, E 3 * 10GBase-T, Overview Immunity: Electrostatic discharge

52 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" The screened systems meet the requirements for all environments in all three operation modes both for air and for contact discharge. The unscreened systems react very sensitive to electrostatic discharges. Additional protection measures are necessary for a safe operation. The screen seams to offer a primary discharge path to earth, preventing the discharge to reach the vital intestines of a data cable. 10GBase-T, Summary Immunity: Electrostatic discharge

53 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Conclusions of UTP/STP study

54 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" EMC results, Summary

55 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Secure 10GBase-T transmission, requires careful consideration of the environment to choose cabling components accordingly. Coupling attenuation as a parameter (especially when measured up to 1 GHz) represents the EMC behavior for emission and immunity with good correlation. The more elaborate the screen construction, the lower the emission and the better the immunity against disturbances from the outside. Conclusions of UTP/STP study (1)

56 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Screened cabling systems with S-FTP construction are well suited to carry 10GBase-T under all environmental classes Screened solutions with F-UTP construction are good for office environments. Unscreened cabling systems can only be used for 10GBase-T outside residential areas (e.g. dedicated offices, data centers). Conclusions of UTP/STP study (2)

57 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" For unscreened cabling to transport 10GBase-T special measures must be taken to reduce the exposure of the cabling to external disturbances: –Careful separation of data cabling to power cabling and disturbing equipment –Usage of dedicated metallic raceways for data cabling –Prevent usage of wireless devices in the proximity of the cabling –Prevent the possibility of ESD Conclusions of UTP/STP study (3)

58 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!" Only the very best unscreened solution will be able to deliver 10GBase-T For the decision of screened or unscreened cabling for 10GBase-T, the whole of the environment and the installation specifics have to be taken into account. Conclusions of UTP/STP study (4)

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60 "To be or not to be - shielded or unshielded? That is the question!"Presentation title (IMPORT THROUGH MENU View or Insert -> Header & Footer) Thank you for your attention!


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