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© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8-1 Interconnecting Networks with TCP/IP.

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1 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8-1 Interconnecting Networks with TCP/IP

2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-2

3 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-3 Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to perform the following tasks: Identify the IP protocol stack, its protocol layer functions, and commonly used IP protocols Identify IP address classes, IP addresses, IP subnet masks, IP network numbers, subnet numbers, and possible host numbers. Configure IP addresses and subnet masks on a router interface and optionally configure a host table. Interconnect the VLANs with a layer three device such as a router on a stick. Objectives

4 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-4 Early protocol suite Universal Introduction to TCP/IP Host Internet TCP/IP Host

5 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-5 TCP/IP Protocol Stack 7 6 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical 1 Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical 1

6 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-6 Application Layer Overview *Used by the router Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical File Transfer - TFTP * - FTP * - NFS E-Mail - SMTP Remote Login - Telnet * - rlogin * Network Management - SNMP * Name Management - DNS* File Transfer - TFTP * - FTP * - NFS E-Mail - SMTP Remote Login - Telnet * - rlogin * Network Management - SNMP * Name Management - DNS*

7 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-7 Transport Layer Overview Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical Connection- Oriented Connectionless

8 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-8 TCP Segment Format Source port (16) Destination port (16) Sequence number (32) Header length (4) Acknowledgement number (32) Reserved (6) Code bits (6) Window (16) Checksum (16)Urgent (16) Options (0 or 32 if any) Data (varies) 20 Bytes Bit 0 Bit 15Bit 16Bit 31

9 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-9 Port Numbers TCP Port Numbers FTPFTP Transport Layer TELNETTELNET DNSDNS SNMPSNMP TFTPTFTP SMTPSMTP UDP Application Layer 21 23 25 53 69 161 RIPRIP 520

10 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-10 TCP Port Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Host A 1028 23 … … SPDP Host Z Telnet Z Dest. port = 23. Send packet to my Telnet application.

11 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-11 Send SYN (seq=100 ctl=SYN) SYN received Host AHost B TCP Three Way Handshake/Open Connection 1

12 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-12 Send SYN (seq=100 ctl=SYN) SYN received Send SYN, ACK (seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack) Host AHost B SYN received 1 2 TCP Three Way Handshake/Open Connection

13 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-13 Send SYN (seq=100 ctl=SYN) SYN received Send SYN, ACK (seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack) Established (seq=101 ack=301 ctl=ack) Host AHost B 1 2 3 SYN received TCP Three Way Handshake/Open Connection

14 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-14 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver

15 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-15 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1

16 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-16 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2

17 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-17 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2

18 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-18 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2 Receive ACK 3 Send ACK 3

19 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-19 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2 Receive ACK 3 Send ACK 3 Send 3 Receive 3

20 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-20 Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2 Receive ACK 3 Send ACK 3 Send 3 Receive 3 Receive ACK 4 Send ACK 4 TCP Simple Acknowledgment

21 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-21 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # SourceDest.Seq.Ack. 102823101 I just sent #10.

22 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-22 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers I just got #10, now I need #11. Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # 1028 23 SourceDest. 1010 Seq. 1 1 Ack. 1028 23 SourceDest. 1111 Seq. 1 1 Ack. I just sent #10.

23 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-23 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # 1028 23 SourceDest. 1111 Seq. 2 2 Ack. 1028 23 SourceDest. 1010 Seq. 1 1 Ack. 1028 23 SourceDest. 1111 Seq. 1 1 Ack. I just got #10, now I need #11. I just sent #11.

24 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-24 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # 1028 23 SourceDest. 1111 Seq. 2 2 Ack. 1028 23 SourceDest. 1010 Seq. 1 1 Ack. 1028 23 SourceDest. 1111 Seq. 1 1 Ack. 1028 23 SourceDest. 1212 Seq. 2 2 Ack. I just got #11, now I need #12. I just sent #11.

25 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-25 TCP Windowing SenderReceiver

26 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-26 TCP Windowing Window size = 3 Send 2 SenderReceiver Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3

27 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-27 Window size = 3 Send 2 TCP Windowing Sender Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 3 Window size = 2 Packet 3 is Dropped Receiver

28 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-28 Window size = 3 Send 2 TCP Windowing Sender Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 3 Window size = 2 Packet 3 is Dropped Window size = 3 Send 4 Window size = 3 Send 3 Receiver

29 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-29 Window size = 3 Send 2 TCP Windowing Sender Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 3 Window size = 2 Packet 3 is Dropped Window size = 3 Send 4 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 5 Window size = 2 Receiver

30 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-30 No sequence or acknowledgment fields UDP Segment Format Source port (16) Destination port (16) Length (16) Data (if any) 1 Bit 0 Bit 15Bit 16Bit 31 Checksum (16) 8 Bytes

31 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-31 Internet Layer Overview OSI network layer corresponds to the TCP/IP internet layer Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical

32 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-32 IP Datagram Version (4) Destination IP Address (32) Options (0 or 32 if any) Data (varies if any) 1 Bit 0 Bit 15Bit 16Bit 31 Header Length (4) Priority & Type of Service (8) Total Length (16) Identification (16) Flags (3) Fragment offset (13) Time to live (8) Protocol (8)Header checksum (16) Source IP Address (32) 20 Bytes

33 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-33 Determines destination upper-layer protocol Protocol Field Transport Layer Internet Layer TCP UDP Protocol Numbers IP 176

34 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-34 Internet Control Message Protocol Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical Destination Unreachable Echo (Ping) Other ICMP 1

35 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-35 Address Resolution Protocol 172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2 IP: 172.16.3.2 = ??? I need the Ethernet address of 176.16.3.2.

36 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-36 Address Resolution Protocol 172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2 IP: 172.16.3.2 = ??? I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address. I need the Ethernet address of 176.16.3.2.

37 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-37 Address Resolution Protocol 172.16.3.1 IP: 172.16.3.2 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.2 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 172.16.3.2 IP: 172.16.3.2 = ??? I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address. I need the Ethernet address of 176.16.3.2.

38 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-38 Address Resolution Protocol Map IP Ethernet Local ARP 172.16.3.1 IP: 172.16.3.2 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.2 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 172.16.3.2 IP: 172.16.3.2 = ??? I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address. I need the Ethernet address of 176.16.3.2.

39 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-39 Reverse ARP Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ??? What is my IP address?

40 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-40 Reverse ARP Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ??? What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is 172.16.3.25.

41 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-41 Reverse ARP Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.25 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.25 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ??? What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is 172.16.3.25.

42 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-42 Reverse ARP Map Ethernet IP Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.25 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.25 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ??? What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is 172.16.3.25.

43 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-43 Unique addressing allows communication between end stations Path choice is based on location Location is represented by an address Introduction to TCP/IP Addresses 172.18.0.2 172.18.0.1 172.17.0.2 172.17.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.0.1 SADAHDRDATA 10.13.0.0 192.168.1.0 10.13.0.1 192.168.1.1

44 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-44 IP Addressing 255 Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost 32 bits

45 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-45 IP Addressing 255 Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 11111111 Binary 32 bits 18916 17 242532 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

46 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-46 IP Addressing 255 Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 11111111 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100 Binary 32 bits 172 16 122 204 Example Decimal Example Binary 18916 17 242532 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

47 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-47 Class A: Class B: Class C: Class D: Multicast Class E: Research IP Address Classes Network Host Network Host Network Host 8 bits

48 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-48 IP Address Classes 1 Class A: Bits: 0NNNNNNN Host 891617242532 Range (1-126) 1 Class B: Bits: 10NNNNNN Network Host 891617242532 Range (128-191) 1 Class C: Bits: 110NNNNN Network Host 891617242532 Range (192-223) 1 Class D: Bits: 1110MMMM Multicast Group 891617242532 Range (224-239)

49 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-49 Host Addresses 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.10 172.16.12.12 10.1.1.1 10.250.8.11 10.180.30.118 E1 172.1612 NetworkHost.. NetworkInterface 172.16.0.0 10.0.0.0 E0 E1 Routing Table 172.16.2.1 10.6.24.2 E0

50 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-50 11111111 Determining Available Host Addresses 172 16 0 0 10101100 00010000 00000000 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8765432187654321 Network Host 00000000 00000001 11111111 11111110... 00000000 00000011 11111101 1 2 3 65534 65535 65536 -... 2 65534 N 2 N -2 = 2 16 -2 = 65534

51 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-51 IP Address Classes Exercise AddressClassNetworkHost 10.2.1.1 128.63.2.100 201.222.5.64 192.6.141.2 130.113.64.16 256.241.201.10

52 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-52 IP Address Classes Exercise Answers Address ClassNetworkHost 10.2.1.1 128.63.2.100 201.222.5.64 192.6.141.2 130.113.64.16 256.241.201.10 A B C C B Nonexistent 10.0.0.0 128.63.0.0 201.222.5.0 192.6.141.0 130.113.0.0 0.2.1.1 0.0.2.100 0.0.0.64 0.0.0.2 0.0.64.16

53 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-53 Network 172.16.0.0 172.16.0.0 Addressing without Subnets 172.16.0.1172.16.0.2 172.16.0.3 …... 172.16.255.253172.16.255.254

54 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-54 Network 172.16.0.0 Addressing with Subnets 172.16.1.0172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 172.16.4.0

55 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-55 Subnet Addressing 172.16.2.200 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.160 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.5 172.16.3.100 172.16.3.150 E0 172.16 Network Interface 172.16.0.0 E0 E1 New Routing Table 2160 Host.. 172.16.3.1 E1

56 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-56 Subnet Addressing 172.16.2.200 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.160 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.5 172.16.3.100 172.16.3.150 172.16.3.1 E0 E1 172.162160 NetworkHost.. NetworkInterface 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 E0 E1 New Routing Table Subnet

57 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-57 Subnet Mask 172 16 0 0 0 0 255 0 0 0 0 0 0 IP Address Default Subnet Mask 8-bit Subnet Mask NetworkHost NetworkHost NetworkSubnetHost Also written as “/16” where 16 represents the number of 1s in the mask. Also written as “/24” where 24 represents the number of 1s in the mask. 11111111 00000000

58 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-58 Decimal Equivalents of Bit Patterns 10000000=128 11000000=192 11100000=224 11110000=240 11111000=248 11111100=252 11111110=254 11111111=255 128 6432168421

59 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-59 16 Network Host 17200 10101100 11111111 10101100 00010000 11111111 00010000 00000000 10100000 00000000 Subnets not in use—the default 00000010 Subnet Mask without Subnets 172.16.2.160 255.255.0.0 Network Number

60 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-60 Network number extended by eight bits Subnet Mask with Subnets 16 Network Host 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.0 17220 10101100 11111111 10101100 00010000 11111111 00010000 11111111 00000010 10100000 00000000 00000010 Subnet Network Number 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255

61 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-61 Subnet Mask with Subnets (cont.) Network Host 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 10101100 11111111 10101100 00010000 11111111 00010000 11111111 00000010 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 Subnet Network number extended by ten bits 161722128 Network Number 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255

62 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-62 Subnet Mask Exercise AddressSubnet MaskClassSubnet 172.16.2.10 10.6.24.20 10.30.36.12 255.255.255.0 255.255.240.0 255.255.255.0

63 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-63 Subnet Mask Exercise Answers AddressSubnet MaskClassSubnet 172.16.2.10 10.6.24.20 10.30.36.12 255.255.255.0 255.255.240.0 255.255.255.0 B A A 172.16.2.0 10.6.16.0 10.30.36.0

64 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-64 Broadcast Addresses 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 172.16.4.0 172.16.3.255 (Directed broadcast) 255.255.255.255 (Local network broadcast) X 172.16.255.255 (All subnets broadcast)

65 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-65 Addressing Summary Example 16 172 2160 10101100000100001010000000000010 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 4 1

66 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-66 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 00010000 11111111 10100000 11000000 00000010 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 16 172 2160

67 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-67 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 00010000 11111111 10100000 11000000 00000010 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 3 7 16 172 2160

68 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-68 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 00010000 11111111 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 3 4 16 172 2160

69 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-69 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 00010000 11111111 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 10111111 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 172 2160

70 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-70 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 00010000 11111111 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 10111111 10000001 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 172 2160

71 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-71 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 00010000 11111111 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 10111111 10000001 10111110 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 172 2160

72 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-72 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 10101100 00010000 11111111 00010000 11111111 00000010 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 10101100000100000000001010111111 10101100000100000000001010000001 101011000001000000000010 10111110 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 172 2160

73 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-73 Addressing Summary Example 10101100 11111111 10101100 00010000 11111111 00010000 11111111 00000010 10100000 11000000 10000000 00000010 10101100000100000000001010111111 10101100000100000000001010000001 101011000001000000000010 10111110 Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First 172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192 172.16.2.128 172.16.2.191 172.16.2.129 172.16.2.190 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16 172 2160

74 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-74 IP Host Address:172.16.2.121 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Subnet Address = 172.16.2.0 Host Addresses = 172.16.2.1–172.16.2.254 Broadcast Address = 172.16.2.255 Eight bits of subnetting NetworkSubnetHost 10101100000100000000001011111111 172.16.2.121: 255.255.255.0: 10101100 11111111 Subnet:1010110000010000 11111111 00000010 11111111 01111001 00000000 Class B Subnet Example Broadcast: Network

75 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-75 Subnet Planning Other subnets 192.168.5.16 192.168.5.32192.168.5.48 20 subnets 5 hosts per subnet Class C address: 192.168.5.0 20 subnets 5 hosts per subnet Class C address: 192.168.5.0

76 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-76 11111000 IP Host Address:192.168.5.121 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.248 Network SubnetHost 192.168.5.121:11000000 11111111 Subnet: 1100000010101000 11111111 00000101 11111111 01111001 01111000 255.255.255.248: Class C Subnet Planning Example Subnet Address = 192.168.5.120 Host Addresses = 192.168.5.121–192.168.5.126 Broadcast Address = 192.168.5.127 Five Bits of Subnetting Broadcast: Network 11000000101010000000010101111111

77 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-77 Broadcast Addresses Exercise AddressClassSubnetBroadcast 201.222.10.60255.255.255.248 Subnet Mask 15.16.193.6255.255.248.0 128.16.32.13255.255.255.252 153.50.6.27255.255.255.128

78 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-78 Broadcast Addresses Exercise Answers 153.50.6.127 AddressClassSubnetBroadcast 201.222.10.60255.255.255.248C201.222.10.63201.222.10.56 Subnet Mask 15.16.193.6255.255.248.0A15.16.199.25515.16.192.0 128.16.32.13255.255.255.252B128.16.32.15128.16.32.12 153.50.6.27255.255.255.128B153.50.6.0

79 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-79 Switch IP Address Configuration Assigns an address and subnet mask Starts IP processing on a switch Switch(config)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask Switch(config)#ip default-gateway ip-address Specifies a default gateway

80 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-80 Router IP Address Configuration Assigns an address and subnet mask Starts IP processing on a router interface Router(config-if)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

81 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-81 Router IP Address Configuration Router(config-line)#ip netmask-format {bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal} Sets format of network mask for a specific line Router#term ip netmask-format {bitcount| decimal | hexadecimal} Sets display format of network mask for current session

82 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-82 Defines static host name to IP address mapping Hosts/interfaces selectable by name or IP address Router IP Host Names Router(config)#ip host name [tcp-port-number] address [address] ip host Norine 172.16.3.1 192.168.3.1 ip host Roger 172.16.4.3 ip host Norine 172.16.3.1 192.168.3.1 ip host Roger 172.16.4.3

83 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-83 Specifies one or more hosts that supply host name to logical address resolution Router Name Server Configuration Router(config)#ip name-server server-address1 [[server-address2]...[server-address6]] DNS Server

84 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-84 DNS enabled by default Router Name System Router(config)#ip domain-lookup Router(config)#end Router#pat Translating ”pat"...domain server (255.255.255.255) % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address Router#config t Router(config)#no ip domain-lookup Router(config)#end Router#pat Translating ”pat" % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address Router#

85 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-85 Router Display Host Names Router#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 255.255.255.255 Host Flags Age Type Address(es) Norine (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.100.100 Roger (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.100.101 Frank (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.200.200 Bob (perm, OK) 0 IP 172.16.200.201 Shows the host table

86 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-86 VLAN to VLAN Overview VLAN 1 VLAN 2 ISL 10.1.1.210.2.2.2 Network layer devices combine multiple broadcast domains Router on a stick Application TCP IP ISL Ethernet Fast E0/0

87 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-87 Dividing a Physical Interface into Subinterfaces FastEthernet 0/0 FastEthernet 0/0.2 FastEthernet 0/0.3 FastEthernet 0/0.1 Physical interfaces can be divided into multiple subinterfaces

88 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-88 ISL Encapsulation Enables ISL on a subinterface Router(config-subif)#encapsulation isl domain

89 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-89 Routing Between VLANs VLAN 1 VLAN 2 ISL interface fastethernet 0/0 no ip address ! interface fastethernet 0/0.1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 1 interface fastethernet 0/0.2 ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 2 Fast E0/0 10.1.1.210.2.2.2

90 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-90 Routing Between WANS ISL interface Serial0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 Application TCP IP HDLC Serial S0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 VLAN 1 VLAN 2 10.1.1.210.2.2.2

91 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-91 Visual Objective core_ server wg_sw_a 10.1.1.10 wg_sw_l 10.1.1.120... e0/1 fa0/26 (port A) e0/1 fa0/26 (port A) fa0/1fa0/12 fa0/24 core_sw_a 10.1.1.2 core_sw_b 10.1.1.4 fa0/12fa0/1 fa0/13 fa0/27 (port B) fa0/27 (port B) wg_pc_a 10.2.2.12 wg_pc_l 10.13.13.12 Core_ro fa0/23 fa0/0 fa0/14 VLAN2 VLAN13 SUBNETVLANPOD 10.1.1.01wg_ro_x, wg_sw_x, core_sw_a, core_sw_b 10.2.2.02wg_pc_a, core_server, core_ro 10.3.3.03wg_pc_b, core_server, core_ro 10.4.4.04wg_pc_c, core_server, core_ro 10.5.5.05wg_pc_d, core_server, core_ro 10.6.6.06wg_pc_e, core_server, core_ro 10.7.7.07wg_pc_f, core_server, core_ro 10.8.8.0 8 wg_pc_g, core_server, core_ro 10.9.9.09wg_pc_h, core_server, core_ro 10.10.10.010wg_pc_i, core_server, core_ro 10.11.11.011wg_pc_j, core_server, core_ro 10.12.12.012wg_pc_k, core_server, core_ro 10.13.13.013wg_pc_l, core_server, core_ro SUBNETVLANPOD 10.1.1.01wg_ro_x, wg_sw_x, core_sw_a, core_sw_b 10.2.2.02wg_pc_a, core_server, core_ro 10.3.3.03wg_pc_b, core_server, core_ro 10.4.4.04wg_pc_c, core_server, core_ro 10.5.5.05wg_pc_d, core_server, core_ro 10.6.6.06wg_pc_e, core_server, core_ro 10.7.7.07wg_pc_f, core_server, core_ro 10.8.8.0 8 wg_pc_g, core_server, core_ro 10.9.9.09wg_pc_h, core_server, core_ro 10.10.10.010wg_pc_i, core_server, core_ro 10.11.11.011wg_pc_j, core_server, core_ro 10.12.12.012wg_pc_k, core_server, core_ro 10.13.13.013wg_pc_l, core_server, core_ro

92 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-92 Summary After completing this chapter, you should be able to perform the following tasks: Identify the TCP/IP protocol stack and the functions of each layer Separate an IP address into its subcomponents: the network, subnet, and host portions Configure IP addresses on Cisco router and switch interfaces Interconnect VLANs using a layer three device such as a “router on a stick”

93 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND—8-93 Review Questions 1. What is the difference between the TCP and UDP transport layer protocols? 2. Given a host with IP address, 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.240, how many other hosts can you have in that network? 3. What is required to interconnect separate VLANs?

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