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© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8-1 Interconnecting Networks with TCP/IP.

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Presentation on theme: "© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8-1 Interconnecting Networks with TCP/IP."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8-1 Interconnecting Networks with TCP/IP

2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-2

3 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-3 Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to perform the following tasks: Identify the IP protocol stack, its protocol layer functions, and commonly used IP protocols Identify IP address classes, IP addresses, IP subnet masks, IP network numbers, subnet numbers, and possible host numbers. Configure IP addresses and subnet masks on a router interface and optionally configure a host table. Interconnect the VLANs with a layer three device such as a router on a stick. Objectives

4 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-4 Early protocol suite Universal Introduction to TCP/IP Host Internet TCP/IP Host

5 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-5 TCP/IP Protocol Stack Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical 1 Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical 1

6 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-6 Application Layer Overview *Used by the router Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical File Transfer - TFTP * - FTP * - NFS - SMTP Remote Login - Telnet * - rlogin * Network Management - SNMP * Name Management - DNS* File Transfer - TFTP * - FTP * - NFS - SMTP Remote Login - Telnet * - rlogin * Network Management - SNMP * Name Management - DNS*

7 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-7 Transport Layer Overview Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical Connection- Oriented Connectionless

8 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-8 TCP Segment Format Source port (16) Destination port (16) Sequence number (32) Header length (4) Acknowledgement number (32) Reserved (6) Code bits (6) Window (16) Checksum (16)Urgent (16) Options (0 or 32 if any) Data (varies) 20 Bytes Bit 0 Bit 15Bit 16Bit 31

9 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-9 Port Numbers TCP Port Numbers FTPFTP Transport Layer TELNETTELNET DNSDNS SNMPSNMP TFTPTFTP SMTPSMTP UDP Application Layer RIPRIP 520

10 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-10 TCP Port Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Host A … … SPDP Host Z Telnet Z Dest. port = 23. Send packet to my Telnet application.

11 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-11 Send SYN (seq=100 ctl=SYN) SYN received Host AHost B TCP Three Way Handshake/Open Connection 1

12 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-12 Send SYN (seq=100 ctl=SYN) SYN received Send SYN, ACK (seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack) Host AHost B SYN received 1 2 TCP Three Way Handshake/Open Connection

13 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-13 Send SYN (seq=100 ctl=SYN) SYN received Send SYN, ACK (seq=300 ack=101 ctl=syn,ack) Established (seq=101 ack=301 ctl=ack) Host AHost B SYN received TCP Three Way Handshake/Open Connection

14 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-14 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver

15 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-15 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1

16 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-16 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2

17 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-17 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2

18 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-18 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2 Receive ACK 3 Send ACK 3

19 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-19 TCP Simple Acknowledgment Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2 Receive ACK 3 Send ACK 3 Send 3 Receive 3

20 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-20 Window size = 1 Sender Receiver Send 1 Receive 1 Receive ACK 2 Send ACK 2 Send 2 Receive 2 Receive ACK 3 Send ACK 3 Send 3 Receive 3 Receive ACK 4 Send ACK 4 TCP Simple Acknowledgment

21 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-21 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # SourceDest.Seq.Ack I just sent #10.

22 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-22 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers I just got #10, now I need #11. Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # SourceDest Seq. 1 1 Ack SourceDest Seq. 1 1 Ack. I just sent #10.

23 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-23 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # SourceDest Seq. 2 2 Ack SourceDest Seq. 1 1 Ack SourceDest Seq. 1 1 Ack. I just got #10, now I need #11. I just sent #11.

24 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-24 TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers Source Port Source Port Dest. Port Dest. Port … … Sequence # Sequence # Acknowledgement # Acknowledgement # SourceDest Seq. 2 2 Ack SourceDest Seq. 1 1 Ack SourceDest Seq. 1 1 Ack SourceDest Seq. 2 2 Ack. I just got #11, now I need #12. I just sent #11.

25 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-25 TCP Windowing SenderReceiver

26 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-26 TCP Windowing Window size = 3 Send 2 SenderReceiver Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3

27 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-27 Window size = 3 Send 2 TCP Windowing Sender Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 3 Window size = 2 Packet 3 is Dropped Receiver

28 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-28 Window size = 3 Send 2 TCP Windowing Sender Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 3 Window size = 2 Packet 3 is Dropped Window size = 3 Send 4 Window size = 3 Send 3 Receiver

29 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-29 Window size = 3 Send 2 TCP Windowing Sender Window size = 3 Send 1 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 3 Window size = 2 Packet 3 is Dropped Window size = 3 Send 4 Window size = 3 Send 3 ACK 5 Window size = 2 Receiver

30 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-30 No sequence or acknowledgment fields UDP Segment Format Source port (16) Destination port (16) Length (16) Data (if any) 1 Bit 0 Bit 15Bit 16Bit 31 Checksum (16) 8 Bytes

31 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-31 Internet Layer Overview OSI network layer corresponds to the TCP/IP internet layer Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical

32 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-32 IP Datagram Version (4) Destination IP Address (32) Options (0 or 32 if any) Data (varies if any) 1 Bit 0 Bit 15Bit 16Bit 31 Header Length (4) Priority & Type of Service (8) Total Length (16) Identification (16) Flags (3) Fragment offset (13) Time to live (8) Protocol (8)Header checksum (16) Source IP Address (32) 20 Bytes

33 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-33 Determines destination upper-layer protocol Protocol Field Transport Layer Internet Layer TCP UDP Protocol Numbers IP 176

34 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-34 Internet Control Message Protocol Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical Destination Unreachable Echo (Ping) Other ICMP 1

35 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-35 Address Resolution Protocol IP: = ??? I need the Ethernet address of

36 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-36 Address Resolution Protocol IP: = ??? I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address. I need the Ethernet address of

37 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-37 Address Resolution Protocol IP: Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: IP: = ??? I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address. I need the Ethernet address of

38 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-38 Address Resolution Protocol Map IP Ethernet Local ARP IP: Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: IP: = ??? I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address. I need the Ethernet address of

39 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-39 Reverse ARP Ethernet: IP = ??? What is my IP address?

40 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-40 Reverse ARP Ethernet: IP = ??? What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is

41 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-41 Reverse ARP Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: IP = ??? What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is

42 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-42 Reverse ARP Map Ethernet IP Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: IP: Ethernet: IP = ??? What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is

43 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-43 Unique addressing allows communication between end stations Path choice is based on location Location is represented by an address Introduction to TCP/IP Addresses SADAHDRDATA

44 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-44 IP Addressing 255 Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost 32 bits

45 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-45 IP Addressing 255 Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost Binary 32 bits

46 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-46 IP Addressing 255 Dotted Decimal Maximum NetworkHost Binary 32 bits Example Decimal Example Binary

47 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-47 Class A: Class B: Class C: Class D: Multicast Class E: Research IP Address Classes Network Host Network Host Network Host 8 bits

48 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-48 IP Address Classes 1 Class A: Bits: 0NNNNNNN Host Range (1-126) 1 Class B: Bits: 10NNNNNN Network Host Range ( ) 1 Class C: Bits: 110NNNNN Network Host Range ( ) 1 Class D: Bits: 1110MMMM Multicast Group Range ( )

49 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-49 Host Addresses E NetworkHost.. NetworkInterface E0 E1 Routing Table E0

50 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND— Determining Available Host Addresses Network Host N 2 N -2 = = 65534

51 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-51 IP Address Classes Exercise AddressClassNetworkHost

52 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-52 IP Address Classes Exercise Answers Address ClassNetworkHost A B C C B Nonexistent

53 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-53 Network Addressing without Subnets …

54 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-54 Network Addressing with Subnets

55 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-55 Subnet Addressing E Network Interface E0 E1 New Routing Table 2160 Host E1

56 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-56 Subnet Addressing E0 E NetworkHost.. NetworkInterface E0 E1 New Routing Table Subnet

57 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-57 Subnet Mask IP Address Default Subnet Mask 8-bit Subnet Mask NetworkHost NetworkHost NetworkSubnetHost Also written as “/16” where 16 represents the number of 1s in the mask. Also written as “/24” where 24 represents the number of 1s in the mask

58 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-58 Decimal Equivalents of Bit Patterns = = = = = = = =

59 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND— Network Host Subnets not in use—the default Subnet Mask without Subnets Network Number

60 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-60 Network number extended by eight bits Subnet Mask with Subnets 16 Network Host Subnet Network Number

61 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-61 Subnet Mask with Subnets (cont.) Network Host Subnet Network number extended by ten bits Network Number

62 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-62 Subnet Mask Exercise AddressSubnet MaskClassSubnet

63 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-63 Subnet Mask Exercise Answers AddressSubnet MaskClassSubnet B A A

64 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-64 Broadcast Addresses (Directed broadcast) (Local network broadcast) X (All subnets broadcast)

65 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-65 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

66 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-66 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

67 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-67 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

68 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-68 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

69 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-69 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

70 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-70 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

71 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-71 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

72 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-72 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

73 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-73 Addressing Summary Example Host Mask Subnet Broadcast Last First

74 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-74 IP Host Address: Subnet Mask: Subnet Address = Host Addresses = – Broadcast Address = Eight bits of subnetting NetworkSubnetHost : : Subnet: Class B Subnet Example Broadcast: Network

75 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-75 Subnet Planning Other subnets subnets 5 hosts per subnet Class C address: subnets 5 hosts per subnet Class C address:

76 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND— IP Host Address: Subnet Mask: Network SubnetHost : Subnet: : Class C Subnet Planning Example Subnet Address = Host Addresses = – Broadcast Address = Five Bits of Subnetting Broadcast: Network

77 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-77 Broadcast Addresses Exercise AddressClassSubnetBroadcast Subnet Mask

78 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-78 Broadcast Addresses Exercise Answers AddressClassSubnetBroadcast C Subnet Mask A B B

79 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-79 Switch IP Address Configuration Assigns an address and subnet mask Starts IP processing on a switch Switch(config)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask Switch(config)#ip default-gateway ip-address Specifies a default gateway

80 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-80 Router IP Address Configuration Assigns an address and subnet mask Starts IP processing on a router interface Router(config-if)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

81 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-81 Router IP Address Configuration Router(config-line)#ip netmask-format {bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal} Sets format of network mask for a specific line Router#term ip netmask-format {bitcount| decimal | hexadecimal} Sets display format of network mask for current session

82 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-82 Defines static host name to IP address mapping Hosts/interfaces selectable by name or IP address Router IP Host Names Router(config)#ip host name [tcp-port-number] address [address] ip host Norine ip host Roger ip host Norine ip host Roger

83 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-83 Specifies one or more hosts that supply host name to logical address resolution Router Name Server Configuration Router(config)#ip name-server server-address1 [[server-address2]...[server-address6]] DNS Server

84 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-84 DNS enabled by default Router Name System Router(config)#ip domain-lookup Router(config)#end Router#pat Translating ”pat"...domain server ( ) % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address Router#config t Router(config)#no ip domain-lookup Router(config)#end Router#pat Translating ”pat" % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address Router#

85 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-85 Router Display Host Names Router#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are Host Flags Age Type Address(es) Norine (perm, OK) 0 IP Roger (perm, OK) 0 IP Frank (perm, OK) 0 IP Bob (perm, OK) 0 IP Shows the host table

86 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-86 VLAN to VLAN Overview VLAN 1 VLAN 2 ISL Network layer devices combine multiple broadcast domains Router on a stick Application TCP IP ISL Ethernet Fast E0/0

87 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-87 Dividing a Physical Interface into Subinterfaces FastEthernet 0/0 FastEthernet 0/0.2 FastEthernet 0/0.3 FastEthernet 0/0.1 Physical interfaces can be divided into multiple subinterfaces

88 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-88 ISL Encapsulation Enables ISL on a subinterface Router(config-subif)#encapsulation isl domain

89 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-89 Routing Between VLANs VLAN 1 VLAN 2 ISL interface fastethernet 0/0 no ip address ! interface fastethernet 0/0.1 ip address encapsulation isl 1 interface fastethernet 0/0.2 ip address encapsulation isl 2 Fast E0/

90 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-90 Routing Between WANS ISL interface Serial0 ip address Application TCP IP HDLC Serial S VLAN 1 VLAN

91 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-91 Visual Objective core_ server wg_sw_a wg_sw_l e0/1 fa0/26 (port A) e0/1 fa0/26 (port A) fa0/1fa0/12 fa0/24 core_sw_a core_sw_b fa0/12fa0/1 fa0/13 fa0/27 (port B) fa0/27 (port B) wg_pc_a wg_pc_l Core_ro fa0/23 fa0/0 fa0/14 VLAN2 VLAN13 SUBNETVLANPOD wg_ro_x, wg_sw_x, core_sw_a, core_sw_b wg_pc_a, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_b, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_c, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_d, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_e, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_f, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_g, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_h, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_i, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_j, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_k, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_l, core_server, core_ro SUBNETVLANPOD wg_ro_x, wg_sw_x, core_sw_a, core_sw_b wg_pc_a, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_b, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_c, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_d, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_e, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_f, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_g, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_h, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_i, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_j, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_k, core_server, core_ro wg_pc_l, core_server, core_ro

92 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-92 Summary After completing this chapter, you should be able to perform the following tasks: Identify the TCP/IP protocol stack and the functions of each layer Separate an IP address into its subcomponents: the network, subnet, and host portions Configure IP addresses on Cisco router and switch interfaces Interconnect VLANs using a layer three device such as a “router on a stick”

93 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-93 Review Questions 1. What is the difference between the TCP and UDP transport layer protocols? 2. Given a host with IP address, , how many other hosts can you have in that network? 3. What is required to interconnect separate VLANs?

94 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND—8-94 Do not delete


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