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Switching & Operations. Address learning Forward/filter decision Loop avoidance Three Switch Functions.

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Presentation on theme: "Switching & Operations. Address learning Forward/filter decision Loop avoidance Three Switch Functions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Switching & Operations

2 Address learning Forward/filter decision Loop avoidance Three Switch Functions

3 How Switches Learn Host Locations Initial MAC address table is empty MAC address table c c c c E0E1 E2E3 AB CD

4 How Switches Learn Hosts Locations Station A sends a frame to Station C Switch caches station A MAC address to port E0 by learning the source address of data frames The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E0 (unknown unicasts are flooded) MAC address table c c c c E0: c E0E1 E2E3 DC BA

5 How Switches Learn Host Locations Station D sends a frame to station C Switch caches station D MAC address to port E3 by learning the source Address of data frames The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded) MAC address table c c c c E0: c E3: c E0E1 E2E3 DC A B

6 How Switches Filter Frames Station A sends a frame to station C Destination is known, frame is not flooded E0: c E2: c E1: c E3: c c c c c E0E1 E2 E3 X X X X D C AB MAC address table

7 Broadcast and Multicast Frames Station D sends a broadcast or multicast frame Broadcast and multicast frames are flooded to all ports other than the originating port c c c c E0E1 E2E3 DC AB E0: c E2: c E1: c E3: c MAC address table

8 Redundant Topology Redundant topology eliminates single points of failure Redundant topology causes broadcast storms, multiple frame copies, and MAC address table instability problems Segment 1 Segment 2 Server/host X Router Y

9 Broadcast Storms Segment 1 Segment 2 Server/host X Router Y Broadcast Switch A Switch B Host X sends a Broadcast

10 Broadcast Storms Segment 1 Segment 2 Server/host X Router Y Broadcast Switch ASwitch B Host X sends a Broadcast

11 Broadcast Storms Segment 1 Segment 2 Server/host X Router Y Broadcast Switches continue to propagate broadcast traffic over and over Switch ASwitch B

12 Multiple Frame Copies Segment 1 Segment 2 Server/host X Router Y Unicast Switch A Switch B Host X sends an unicast frame to router Y Router Y MAC address has not been learned by either switch yet

13 Multiple Frame Copies Segment 1 Segment 2 Server/host X Router Y Unicast Switch A Switch B Host X sends an unicast frame to Router Y Router Y MAC Address has not been learned by either Switch yet Router Y will receive two copies of the same frame Unicast

14 Complex topology can cause multiple loops to occur Layer 2 has no mechanism to stop the loop Server/host Workstations Loop Multiple Loop Problems Broadcast

15 Solution: Spanning-Tree Protocol Provides a loop free redundant network topology by placing certain ports in the blocking state Block x

16 Spanning-Tree Operations One root bridge per network One root port per nonroot bridge One designated port per segment x Designated port (F)Root port (F) Designated port (F) Nondesignated port (B) Root bridgeNonroot bridge SW X SW Y 100baseT 10baseT

17 Spanning-Tree Protocol Path Cost Link SpeedCost (reratify IEEE spec) Cost (previous IEEE spec) Gbps 21 1 Gbps Mbps Mbps100100

18 Switch Y MAC 0c Default priority Switch X MAC 0c Default priority Port 0 Port 1 Port 0 Port 1 Switch Z Mac 0c Default priority Port 0 Can you figure out: What is the root bridge? What are the designated, nondesignated, and root ports? Which are the forwarding and blocking ports? 100baseT Spanning-Tree:

19 Switch Y MAC 0c Default priority Switch X MAC 0c Default priority Port 0 Port 1 Port 0 Port 1 Switch Z Mac 0c Default priority Port 0 Can you figure out: What is the root bridge? What are the designated, nondesignated, and root parts? Which are the forwarding and blocking ports? 100baseT Spanning-Tree: Designated port (F) Root port (F) Nondesignated port (BLK)Designated port (F) Root port (F)

20 Blocking (20 sec) Listening (15 sec) Learning (15 sec) Forwarding Spanning-Tree Port States Spanning-tree transitions each port through several different state:

21 Spanning-Tree Recalculation Switch Y MAC 0c Default priority Switch X MAC 0c Default priority Port 0 Port 1 Port 0 Port 1 10baseT x x 100baseT Root Bridge Designated portRoot port (F) Nondesignated port (BLK)Designated port

22 Switch Y MAC 0c Default priority Switch X MAC 0c Default priority Port 0 Port 1 Port 0 Port 1 10baseT x x 100baseT Root Bridge Designated portRoot port (F) Nondesignated port (BLK)Designated port BPDU x x MAXAGE x x Spanning-Tree Recalculation

23 Key Issue: Time to Convergence Convergence occurs when all the switch and bridge ports have transitioned to either the forwarding or blocking state When network topology changes, switches and bridges must recompute the Spanning-Tree Protocol, which disrupts user traffic

24 Primarily software based One spanning-tree instance per bridge Usually up to 16 ports per bridge Bridging Primarily hardware based (ASIC) Many spanning-tree instances per switch More ports on a switch LAN Switching Bridging Compared to LAN Switching

25 Transmitting Frames Through a Switch Cut-through Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame Frame

26 Transmitting Frames through a Switch Store and forward Complete frame is received and checked before forwarding Cut-through Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame Frame

27 Transmitting Frames through a Switch Cut-through Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame Frame Fragment free (modified cut-through)—Cat1900 Default Switch checks the first 64 bytes then immediately begins forwarding frame Frame Store and forward Complete frame is received and checked before forwarding Frame

28 Duplex Overview Half duplex (CSMA/CD) Unidirectional data flow Higher potential for collison Hubs connectivity Switch Hub

29 Duplex Overview Half duplex (CSMA/CD) Unidirectional data flow Higher potential for collison Hubs connectivity Switch Hub Full duplex Point-to-point only Attached to dedicated switched port Requires full-duplex support on both ends Collision free Collision detect circuit disabled

30 Configuring the Switch Catalyst 1900 –Menu driven interface –Web-based VSM (Visual Switch Manager) –IOS CLI (command-line interface)

31 Catalyst 1900 Default Configurations IP address: CDP: Enabled Switching mode: fragment free 100baseT port: Auto-negotiate duplex mode 10baseT port: Half duplex Spanning Tree: Enabled Console password: none

32 Ports on the Catalyst 1900 Cat1912Cat baseT ports AUI port 100baseT uplink ports e0/1 to e0/12e0/1 to e0/24 e0/25 fa0/26 (port A) fa0/27 (port B) fa0/26 (port A) fa0/27 (port B)

33 Ports on the Catalyst 1900 wg_sw_d#sh run Building configuration... Current configuration: ! interface Ethernet 0/1 ! interface Ethernet 0/2 wg_sw_d#sh span Port Ethernet 0/1 of VLAN1 is Forwarding Port path cost 100, Port priority 128 Designated root has priority 32768, address Designated bridge has priority 32768, address Designated port is Ethernet 0/1, path cost 0 Timers: message age 20, forward delay 15, hold 1 wg_sw_a#show vlan-membership Port VLAN Membership Type Port VLAN Membership Type Static 13 1Static 2 1 Static 14 1 Static 3 1 Static15 1 Static

34 Configuring the Switch Configuration Modes Global configuration mode wg_sw_a# conf term wg_sw_a(config)# Interface configuration mode wg_sw_a(config)# interface e0/1 wg_sw_a(config-if)#

35 Configuring the Switch IP Address wg_sw_a(config)# ip address {ip address} {mask}

36 wg_sw_a(config)#ip address Configuring the Switch IP Address wg_sw_a(config)# ip address {ip address} {mask}

37 wg_sw_a(config)# ip default-gateway {ip address} Configuring the Switch Default Gateway

38 Setting Permanent MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)# mac-address-table permanent {mac-address type module/port}

39 Setting Permanent MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)# wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent ethernet 0/3 mac-address-table permanent {mac-address type module/port}

40 Setting Permanent MAC Address wg_sw_a#sh mac-address-table Number of permanent addresses : 1 Number of restricted static addresses : 0 Number of dynamic addresses : 4 Address Dest Interface Type Source Interface List E0.1E5D.AE2FEthernet 0/2DynamicAll Ethernet 0/3Permanent All 00D0.588F.B604FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00E0.1E5D.AE2BFastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00D C4FastEthernet 0/27 Dynamic All wg_sw_a(config)# wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent ethernet 0/3 mac-address-table permanent {mac-address type module/port}

41 Setting Restricted Static MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)# mac-address-table restricted static {mac-address type module/port src-if-list}

42 Setting Restricted Static MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table restricted static e0/4 e0/1 wg_sw_a(config)# mac-address-table restricted static {mac-address type module/port src-if-list}

43 Show Version

44 Review Questions 1. What function does Spanning-Tree Protocol provide? 2. What are the different spanning-tree port states? 3. Describe the difference between full-duplex and half-duplex operations. What is the default duplex setting on the Catalyst Mbps port and 100Mbps port? 4. What is the default switching mode on the Catalyst 1900?

45 Review Questions 5. What is the Catalyst 1900 CLI command to assign an IP address to the switch? Why does a Layer 2 switch require an IP address? 6. Which type of MAC address does not age, permanent or dynamic? 7. What is the Catalyst 1900 CLI command to display the contents of the MAC address table?


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