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Light, Lighting Plans & Luminaires Malcolm Mackness BA(Hons) I Eng Associate ILP LCADS Ltd Obtrusive Light.

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Presentation on theme: "Light, Lighting Plans & Luminaires Malcolm Mackness BA(Hons) I Eng Associate ILP LCADS Ltd Obtrusive Light."— Presentation transcript:

1 Light, Lighting Plans & Luminaires Malcolm Mackness BA(Hons) I Eng Associate ILP LCADS Ltd Obtrusive Light

2 Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB2

3 Problems The right amount of light, where it is needed is essential element of our 24- hour lifestyle nowadays. This need can occur in remote landscapes as well as urban areas. Light in the wrong quantity, colour or place may be a nuisance, intrusive or even dangerous. Good lighting design has always sought to achieve the appropriate light levels and qualities for the task in hand, whilst minimising effects outside the designated area. Problems can stem from old lighting equipment and systems, together with poor design or choice of equipment for new installations. poor installation practices can produce bad lighting from excellent equipment. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB3

4 Lighting Plans A Dark Sky Lighting Management Plan (LMP) will be based around an existing dark landscape, seeking to maintain and, ideally, improve upon it. Plans will draw on material from a variety of sources, including :- IDA Dark Sky Places requirements. Highways Agency strategies. County Council, City & Town / District Council / Parish Council lighting policies. Planning Legislation & guidance notes, AONB & National Park policies, etc. LMPs identify a Core Zone with either no or minimal lighting within it. A Buffer Zone surrounding the Core, with stringent light controls. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB4

5 Control Lighting may be controlled physically in terms of:- Quantity Intensity Direction This should occur for both:- The lighting task itself Light beyond the task area (spill light, glare, presence in the landscape etc.) Control can also be in terms of time, e.g. curfews, presence switching etc. To understand problems we need to understand some basic lighting terminology. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB5

6 Standards & Units – Light Source Intensity Unit: Candela The intensity of a light source. (Subjectively this is the brightness viewed by an observer). 1 candela is roughly the brightness of a candle, which was the original standard. Limits on light source brightness are typically set in lighting plans. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB6

7 Light Flux (quantity) Unit: Lumen The total amount of light emitted from the source in all directions. A source of 1 Candela will emit 4 pi (approx ) Lumens. Limits on total lumens are set for compliant fittings in Dark Sky plans. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB7

8 Illuminance (illumination / light level) Unit: LUX (lumens per square metre). The measure of light (the illuminance) falling onto a surface. A source of 1 candela produces an illuminance of 1 lux at a distance of 1m. Illuminance levels should be appropriate for the task to be undertaken. Limits are set for illuminance onto windows in obtrusive light calculations. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB8

9 Luminance (brightness) Unit: Candela / m2 The luminance (brightness) of object(s) & ultimately the whole scene when illuminated. Luminance depends on the:- Illuminance (light falling on to surface(s). Reflectivity. Colour of the components of the scene. Also applies to an internally illuminated object e.g. a sign. Upper limits of luminance are typically set for floodlit buildings, statues etc. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB9

10 Key features Source intensity (in cd) does not change with distance! Illuminance (in lux) varies inversely with the square of the distance. 1.0 m produces an Illuminance of m produces an illuminance of m produces an illuminance of 0.11 lux etc. Luminance (cd/m2) depends on the Illuminance, reflection factor, surface characteristics & colour(s) of the surface(s). Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB10

11 Permissible values link to Lighting Zones. The values set for the various components above are determined by the nature of the area in which the lighting exists or is proposed. The nature of the area determines the Lighting Zone. Determining the local Lighting Zone(s) and thereby setting appropriate light limits, should be an automatic part of the process for any new planning application involving exterior lighting. Zones are considered in more detail later. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB11

12 Lighting Plans - 2 The Lighting Plan will deal with all the current IDA requirements and set them in context with the UK and Regional / local criteria. Summarise the lighting situation within the designated area and look for a minimum of 67% of fittings to be compliant with light control criteria. Identify good and bad situations. Develop & implement strategies, short and long term to overcome or mitigate problems. This will include the need to achieve a minimum of 90% compliance within 5 years. Involve Councils, Local Bodies & Organisations & the Public Operate in the designated area and be maintained for regular audit by the IDA. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB12

13 Light Management Strategies In broad terms, minimising unwanted light will involve the replacement or removal of fittings which do not comply. Medium to long-term improvement of the compliant lighting % is a normal requirement of an IDA award. Require that all new lighting installed within the designated Core & Buffer Zones is compliant with the Dark Sky plan. This will involve Careful assessment of all new development which included lighting. Setting Conditions which ensure the Plan is not compromised. Issue of guidance and advice and / or reference to suitable lighting specialists via links with the Local Authorities etc. for individuals or Developers. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB13

14 Local Authorities The Local County & City / Town / District Councils should have suitable lighting policies and lighting staff who understand and operate them. Parish Councils may have street lighting powers & need to be involved, perhaps with guidance from the County Authority. Planning Departments in Councils, National Park Authorities etc., will also need staff who can understand the nature of lighting problems or have suitable professional contacts available to provide guidance. Malcolm Mackness LCADS Ltd Cranborne Chase AONB14

15 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – Light Nuisance and Planning Applications James H Paterson & Malcolm Mackness Design Practice Directors Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd

16 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – Clean Neighbourhoods and Environmental Act 2005 Section 102 – “Artificial light emitted from premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance” Could keep people awake – causing depression or causing accidents Must involve interference with the use of property or highway NO SIMPLE ANSWER regardless of IDA award status

17 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – The PLANNERS viewpoint 1 Sky Glow / Aura 1 Sky Glow / Aura 2 Glare from Source (caused by poor light control) 2 Glare from Source (caused by poor light control) 3 How do you recognise warning signs in planning applications containing technical lighting data ? + WHAT is MISSING? 3 How do you recognise warning signs in planning applications containing technical lighting data ? + WHAT is MISSING?

18 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – Just a piece of stone sculpture? Receptor 1’s Location Receptor 1’s Location

19 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – 2 People with Opposing Views? Receptor 2’s Receptor 2’s Location Location

20 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – Triangles or Diamonds ? Receptor 3’s Receptor 3’s Location Location

21 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – Or Just a Star in the Sky Receptor 4’s Receptor 4’s Location Location

22 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – The “star” now shown in its correct environmental setting Principal Receptor Viewpoint Designed to convey message of “man’s” differing perspectives at time of conflict

23 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – CASE STUDY ?? WHERE IS THE PROBLEM ??

24 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – CASE STUDY Old RAF Bomb Store Old RAF Bomb Store Road Network between Bunkers Road Network between Bunkers Lighting columns with old sodium lanterns Lighting columns with old sodium lanterns Developer changed them to 80w mercury area floodlights and local planning needed precondition report Developer changed them to 80w mercury area floodlights and local planning needed precondition report Holiday Home Site Excluded 1999

25 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – CLASIC LACK of UNDERSTANDING 1 Critical Receptor location not identified 1 Critical Receptor location not identified 2 AONB not declared until after initial report was written. 2 AONB not declared until after initial report was written. 3 Client chose to listen to others 3 Client chose to listen to others

26 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – AONB RE-VISIT 2001

27 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – AONB RE-VISIT 2001 SITE ILLUMINATED SITE LIGHTING EXTINGUISHED

28 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – LIGHT DISTRIBUTION Screen round floodlight concentrated light in downward direction Internal surface of screen and road surface act as a reflector The angle of light reflected off a surface is equal to the incident angle

29 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – RECEPTOR VIEWPOINT Upward viewpoints are likely to see greater source intensity than a horizontal view point Dark backgrounds make light sources appear brighter

30 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – LIGHT DISTRIBUTION Road lighting lanterns recommended to replace the area floodlights. Front light limiting screen on units pointing downhill into open valley

31 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. –

32 Carry Forward Terms Environmental Zones Environmental Zones Viewed Intensity Viewed Intensity Light Distribution Light Distribution

33 Luminaires

34 Road Lighting

35 LED Street Lights

36 Bollards

37 Symmetric Floodlights

38 Double Asymmetric Floodlights

39 LED Floodlights

40 Asymmetric Floodlights

41 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – ILP Obtrusive light guidelines ENVIRONMENTAL ZONES E0 Protected Darkness beyond property D.S.P Core Zones E0 Protected Darkness beyond property D.S.P Core Zones E1 Intrinsic Darkness E1 Intrinsic Darkness National Parks, AONB, Dark Sky Park / Reserve National Parks, AONB, Dark Sky Park / Reserve E2 Low District Brightness E2 Low District Brightness Dark Sky Town / Community Dark Sky Town / Community E3 Medium District Brightness E3 Medium District Brightness E4 High District Brightness E4 High District Brightness Set to suit the Local Development Plan Set to suit the Local Development Plan

42 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – ILP Obtrusive Light Guidelines Download :2011

43 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – VIEWED INTENSITY LIMITS PRE POST Curfew (Switch Off) PRE POST Curfew (Switch Off) E000(typical of Core) E000(typical of Core) E1 2,5000 (Buffer & AONB) E1 2,5000 (Buffer & AONB) E2 7, E2 7, E310,000 1,000 E310,000 1,000 E425,000 2,500 E425,000 2,500 Values in Candelas do not diminish with distance from source Values in Candelas do not diminish with distance from source

44 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – WINDOW INTRUSION CONTROL Values are measured vertically on window glass Values are measured vertically on window glass If window is illuminated with other sources should be measured before and after installation date to determine additional value If window is illuminated with other sources should be measured before and after installation date to determine additional value Values (next slide) do not relate to task illuminance recommendations Values (next slide) do not relate to task illuminance recommendations

45 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – ILP LIGHT INTRUSION LIMITS Intrusion ControlE0E1E2 Pre 10pm (lux) Post 10pm (lux) 0 0 1

46 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – Lighting Quality Terms Candela – Intensity of light from a luminaire in one direction Candela – Intensity of light from a luminaire in one direction Lux – Illumination on a surface Lux – Illumination on a surface (lumens per square metre) (lumens per square metre) Lumens – Output of light source / lamp Lumens – Output of light source / lamp

47 Lighting Consultancy And Design Services Ltd. – ILP GRAPHICS warning Graphics not suitable for Dark Sky Place since luminaire MUST be horizontal if lumens > 500 in Park or Reserve Graphics not suitable for Dark Sky Place since luminaire MUST be horizontal if lumens > 500 in Park or Reserve

48 Sport & Work Lighting

49 Both sports pitches and outside working areas will have recommendations for appropriate levels set by Governing Bodies, ILP & CIBSE reports. Some working environments have light levels set out in legislation e.g Docks Regulations. It is important to check current recommended values.

50 Sports lighting levels Target light levels for sports pitches need to be appropriate to the level of general play. Premier (especially) & Football League pitches present the greatest problems due to high lighting demands for HD TV coverage. Local club & practice pitches sometimes have high illuminance levels specified if they are used by larger clubs for training / practice purposes.

51 Athens Olympic Stadium

52 Football & Tennis!

53 Tennis Pitches

54 Typical Lighting Layouts

55 General Area Lighting Area floodlighting is generally more straightforward than for sports, with fewer constraints. Designs are usually based on horizontal illuminance with suitable uniformities. Required illuminances are generally lower. Greater mounting heights actually give better opportunities for minimising upward light.

56 Switching Lighting systems using conventional discharge lamps need a run-up time of several minutes before they reach full output. If switched off, they will not re-strike until cool. They cannot be used with Passive Infra-red (PIR) switches for security purposes.

57 Security / Occupancy Switching Tungsten & tungsten halogen lamps and now LEDs have instant light output at full power. They re-strike immediately. The are therefore suitable for security switching needs and occupancy-switching, reducing unnecessary operation & running costs.


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