2StandardsE1-1 Read and comprehend a variety of literary texts in print and non print forms.E1-2 Read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and non print forms.E1-3 Use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently.
3StandardsE1-4 create written work that has clear focus, sufficient detail, coherent organization, effective use of voice, correct use of conventions of Standard American English.E1-5 write for a variety of purposes.E1-6 Access and use information from a variety of sources.
5Elements of Literature include: GenreTypes or categories of literature. Genre groups are determined by the structure and the characteristics they share.
6Genre (Types of Literature) include: Nonfiction- true, real life informationBiographyAutobiographyEssays, SpeechesJournals and DiariesReportsFiction-Imaginary stories created by the writer.Novel (Extended Narrative story) Fables, Fairy Tales, Myths, Legends, Romance, Science Fiction.Short Story (Brief condensed stories)
7Genre continued…Poetry- literature that conveys emotion and self expression.Prose- All writing that is not poetry.Drama- Literature intended to be acted out (performed).Radio scriptsT.V. scriptsPlays
8CharactersThe Figures in the story. These can be people and animals also.CharacterizationDirect and indirect ways to identify and describe characters.
9Characters include: Narrator The person telling the story. Protagonist The main character. Often called the hero or the good guy.AntagonistThe person, situation, or thing that is trying to prevent the protagonist from achieving his/her goal. Often called the enemy, the bad guy, or the villain.FoilA character who is the direct opposite of another character. He/she is included in the story to emphasize specific details about others.
10Writers use Characterization to develop characters by: DescriptionFor example, How characters look, dress and how old they are.NarrationTelling the story through the speaker.DialogueConversation between two or more characters.DialectThe way the characters speak. (Regional accents, culture specific phrases and slang).ActionsWhat the characters actually do. This often indicates how they think and feel without saying it.
11PlotThe sequence or series of related events in a story. It is the order in which they happen. The plot diagram maps out the way that a story unfolds.
12Part of the Plot Plot Diagram Climax Suspense Falling Action The most intense part of the story.The highpoint.Plot DiagramSuspense(excitement and anticipation)Foreshadowing(hints or clues that something is about to happen)Falling ActionThe story is winding down.Readers begin to understandwhat has happened and why.Rising ActionStory begins to developConflict is beginning to surface.ResolutionConflict is solved.ExpositionCharactersSettingSolutionThe end
13Elements of Literature continued… SettingThe time, place and surroundings where the story occurs.ThemeThe message that the entire passage is communicating to the reader. Sometimes it is hidden (subliminal) and sometimes it is not hidden (apparent).Universal ThemeSituations, relationships, and emotions that are common to all humans no matter when, where, or how they live.Author’s StyleThe way an author chooses to write.
15The Short Story Tells a complete story in just 500 to 15,000 words. Most often, the story has a clear beginning, middle, and end.It reveals the character’s personalities through actions and thoughts.
16Short Story Titles Inform readers of story content. Create curiosity for the reader.Indicate main idea of the story.
17Elements of the Short Story SettingConflictPoint of ViewFirst person- narrator uses “I, We, Us” Narrator is a part of the story.Second Person- Narrator uses “You, and One” He/She speaks to the reader by indirectly addressing them.Third Person- Narrator uses “He, She, They, Them” Story is told in a second handed way as though the narrator was watching it rather than participating in it.Third person Limited- Narrator speaks in depth about only one character in the story.Third Person Omniscient- narrator takes on a God-like quality. He/She goes in depth about all characters in the story.PlotCharacterTheme
18Tips for reading Short Stories. Connect with the text.Ask questions.Make predictions.Interpret.Extend the text.Challenge the text.Use context clues.
19Remember… Use a dictionary if one is available. Use context clues. When you come across words that you do not recognize or understand you can do two things:Use a dictionary if one is available.Use context clues.
21Using context clues means Using what’s already in your head and connecting it to what’s in the text. Look for small clues that indicate what the word may mean. These clues are usually in the sentence that contains the word, and the sentences before and after the word.
22For example:“I believe that all people should be treated the same. That’s why I am an advocate for equal rights”.Use the clues in the sentence to determine what the word advocate means
23Because the speaker stated the way he feels about how people are treated, we can infer (guess) that the word advocate means someone who supports, defends, or believes in a particular thing.In this case, the speaker supports, defends, or believes in equal rights for everyone.
26Prepare to answer the following questions: Review your notes.Prepare to answer the following questions:
271.What are the elements of literature? 2.How are groups of literature categorized?3.Which methods do author’s use to describe characters?4.Explain the elements of the Plot Diagram. What information is offered in each part?
28Review continued…5.What is the difference between a short story and a novel?6.How do Short Story titles help readers understand more about the story itself?7.Instead of using a dictionary, what can a reader do to figure out unfamiliar words? Explain the process.
29What are the elements of literature? The elements of literature are:Genre which includes non-fiction,fiction,poetry,drama,characters,characterization,plot,setting,theme,universaltheme,authors style.The elements of literature are all of the components that make up literature.