Presentation on theme: "DAU “Hot Topics” Forum: DoD Human Systems Integration"— Presentation transcript:
1DAU “Hot Topics” Forum: DoD Human Systems Integration IntroductionMr. Richard EtheridgeOPNAV N15112 Aug 101
2Overview: What is HSI?HSI is a multi-disciplinary strategy for the design and life-cycle support of systemsBased on human-centric issues (Warfighters First!)Executed as a systems engineering activityRequires unique mind-set to system designMain priorities:Maximize Total System PerformanceMinimize Life Cycle CostHSI brings the human based technical elements to the systems engineering process and has the same focus: MAXIMIZE TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND MINIMIZE LIFE CYCLE COST
3Overview: What is HSI? 7 Domains Defined by DoD 5000 Human Factors EngineeringManpowerPersonnelTrainingHabitabilityPersonnel SurvivabilityEnvironment, Safety and Occupational HealthHuman PerformanceHuman InterfacesHuman Error AvoidanceTop Down AnalysisDesign for UsabilityDesign for MaintainabilityWorkloadWartime Requirements (Quality/Quantity)Peacetime Requirements (Quality/Quantity)Officer, Enlisted and CivilianForce StructureOperating StrengthPersonnel ClassificationSelectionRecruitingRetentionCareer ProgressionSkill MixSpecial SkillsOccupational StandardsDistributionManning ConceptsKnowledge, Skills and AttitudesInitial SkillSkill ProgressionFunctionalIndividual and TeamTraining ConceptsInitial & Follow-onDelivery SystemsOrganic TrainingEmbedded TrainingDistance LearningVirtual EnvironmentIntelligent TutoringQuality of LifeQuality of WorkEnvironmental Limits and ControlsPersonnel ServicesAnti-FratricidePersonnel ProtectionDamage ControlPerformance Effects of EnsemblesAccident AvoidanceSafety Hazard AvoidanceHealth Hazard AvoidanceRisk MitigationMedical7 Domains Defined by DoD 5000HSI covers a lot of territory – from early concept phases where we look at allocations of functions among hardware, software, and people (based on the capabilities and limitations of people) to certification that the “system” manned with the typical “user” who has undergone typical “training” can perform as required as part of system certification. All of these domains contribute to the ability of our Sailors and systems to meet mission requirements.Maintainability not always remembered and normally included under HFE.TRADE-OFF ANALYSESENHANCE TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE WHILE REDUCING LIFE-CYCLE COST
4HSI in Systems Acquisition: DoD Directive 5000.1 (12-May-03) E1.29 Total Systems Approach. The PM shall apply human systems integration to optimize total system performance (hardware, software, and human), operational effectiveness, and suitability, survivability, safety, and affordability. PMs shall consider supportability, life cycle costs, performance, and schedule comparable in making program decisions. Planning for Operation and Support and the estimation of total ownership costs shall begin as early as possible.E1.27 Systems Engineering. Acquisition programs shall be managed through the application of a systems engineering approach that optimizes total system performance and minimizes total ownership costs.
5HSI in Systems Acquisition: DoD Instruction 5000.02 (2-DEC-08) E8.2. “HSI planning shall be summarized in the Acquisition Strategy and SEPand shall address the following:HFE, Personnel, Habitability, Manpower, Training, SOH, & Survivability”E8.1. “The PM shall have a plan for HSI in place early in the acquisition process to optimize total system performance, minimize total ownership costs, and ensure that the system is built to accommodate the characteristics of the user population that will operate, maintain, and support the system.”Enclosure 8
6Service HSI Related Policies ARMYNAVYAIR FORCEPolicyAR 70-1, Army Acquisition Policy.DA PAM 70-3, Army Acquisition Procedures.AR 602-2, Manpower and Personnel Integration in the System Acquisition Process (DRAFT in staffing).AR 40-10, Health Hazard Assessment Program in Support of the Army Acquisition Process.AR , The Army Safety Program.AR 73-1, Army Test and Evaluation Policy.SECNAVINST , Implementation of Operation of the Defense Acquisition System and the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System.OPNAVINST , Navy Personnel Human Systems Integration.OPNAVINST B, Naval Training Systems Requirements, Acquisition, and Management.NAVSEAINST A, Human Factors in the Naval Sea Systems Command.AFPD 63-1/20-1, Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management, Paragraph 3.18 (3 Apr 2009).AFI , Acquisition and Sustainment Life Cycle Management, Paragraph 3.79 (17 Apr 2009).AFI , Life Cycle Systems Engineering, Attachment 5 (23 Jul 2007).AFI , Capabilities-based Requirements Development, Paragraph (31 Jul 2006).AFI , Capabilities-Based Test and Evaluation, Paragraph 2.5 (20 Mar 2009, Chg 2).AFPD 90-8, Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health, Paragraphs 1.0, 4.3, 4.10 (1 Sep 2004).
7HSI in Acquisition Navy Perspective Pass 1 (OPNAV/HQMC)Pass 2 (ASN(RDA))Gate 1Gate 2Gate 3Gate 4Gate 5Gate 6Gate 6Gate 6Strategic GuidanceABCOSD/JCSConceptRefinementPhaseCD ConceptApproved DecisionRequirementsDevelopmentPhaseAOA ICD CDDCONOPSTechnologyDevelopmentPhaseSystem Development &DemonstrationPhaseJoint ConceptsProduction &DeploymentPhaseOperations &Support PhaseSustainment & DisposalLRIP & IOT&E/ Full Rate ProductionMDA AOA MandatoryDecision Dev DecisionSDSApprovalRFPApprovedSufficiencyReviewFRP DecisionCOCOMPreliminary Design ReviewPost Design ReviewPost-CDR AssessmentRFT/IOCFOCAcquisition StrategyHuman Systems Integration PlanTraining Planning Process MethodologyTraining Solution DevelopmentTraining System Installation PlanPreliminary NTSP Final NTSP Updated NTSP Updated NTSPPreliminary Ship/Squadron Manpower Manning Document EstimateCrew Scheduling & Phasing PlanManpower Estimate UpdatesShip/Squadron Manning DocumentIOT&E – Interoperability Test & EvaluationLRIP – Low-rate Initial ProductionPDR – Preliminary Design ReviewTDS – Technology Design SpecificationNTSP - Naval Training System PlanAoA – Analysis of AlternativesCDR – Critical Design ReviewFOC – Full Operational CapabilityFRP – Full Rate ProductionIOC – Initial Operational CapabilityProgram Initiation is normally at Milestone BProgram Initiation for Shipbuilding may be at Milestone A
8HSI Program Impacts Program Service ACAT Impact Air Warrior – Long Bow ApacheArmyIResolved over 250 HSI related issues based on field surveys. $24M in cost savings from reduced wartime and peacetime maintenance hours. HSI investment < $100K.Future Combat System – Mobile Combat SystemDetermined optimal number of FCS mobile combatsystem (MCS) crew and best allocation of tasks usingtask network modeling. FCS ORD revised MCS crewfrom 2 to 3 (Threshold). Results were also transitionedto AMSAA’s Analysis of Alternatives (AoA); reducedcrew members from 4 to 3 on M1 Tank.Littoral Combat ShipNavyManpower KPP >100 ship's crew; modular design w/aviationdetachment.AEGIS Combat Information Center (CIC)Combat team of 4 doing the previous work of 8; No increase in overall workload.F-16 Block 40/50 Glass Cockpit MultinationalStaged Improvement Program (MSIP)Air ForceOne Year design simulation was funded for $500Kand is estimated to have saved a major block software change at a cost savings of $35M.C-17 Cargo AircraftCrew Systems, human factors, manpower, personnel, and training efforts credited with saving 2,916 Manpower positions over the predecessor system. Life Cycle Cost Savings Estimated in excess of $300M. Exceptional joint aircraft with order of magnitude improvements for combat support.
9HSI Success Stories: AMOD CIC Mockups Partial and full scale mockups used to validateLayout / egressOperator VisibilityMaintainer accessSafetyUsability Assessments (UAs)Realistic scenariosPartial DDG CIC Mockup$20K Materials saved millions in costly redesignBoth DDG / CG layouts evaluatedSeveral targeted HSI evals over 9 month period (Sep 08- May 09)Evals were HSI criteria driven31 Significant FindingsDocumented Impact areas:Cost avoidanceSafetyHuman Performance EnhancementsSituation AwarenessMission PerformanceFull Scale DDG CIC MockupAMOD UA’s have provided an unprecedented level of insight into the relationship of ship designs and the associated impact on human performance in the new CIC.999
10HSI Success Stories: DDG 1000 Bridge Mockups Pre-MS BFull scale bridge mockup used to validateEarlier 3D CAD Modeling fly-throughsLayout / egressWatchstander VisibilityMaintainer accessSafetyConcept of Operations Exercises (COOPEXs)Realistic scenariosHarbor TransitFormation SteamingUNREPRepresentative UsersQualified Active Duty Bridge OfficersData Collection EffortsDisplay locationDisplay contentAccessibilityInternal & external communicationsWork flowSeating RequirementsDDG 1000 SMC Mockup$20K Materials (low fidelity) saved millions in costly redesignLSDs mounted behind bridge windows used to depict ship’s motion & external objects19 Significant Findings (5 Structural Changes)Documented Impact areas:Cost avoidance > $22 MHuman Performance EnhancementsSafety Risk MitigationMission PerformanceThird Bridge W/S ValidatedThe ROI has been realized by reduced technical & schedule risk, reduced acquisition costs, and cost avoidance of rework if evaluations had been conducted at IOC.101010
15HSI Deliverables Service Deliverable Navy Army Air Force Coast Guard IAW ONI K, a Human Systems Integration Plan (HSIP) is required prior to MS B. However, SNI D only requires HSI planning be conducted. Note: N151 submitted language to the revised SNI D (SNI E) that requires the MDA or PM to determine the need for an HSIP.Currently, there is no HSI deliverable required by DoD or SECNAV policy. However, NTSPs and MERs are considered HSI artifacts by the ASN RD&A and SYSCOMs.Moving forward, ONI lays the fundamental groundwork for HSI requirements in JCIDS; thus implicitly establishing the need for HSI planning to be conducted.ArmyThe Army requires MANPRINT Assessments (HSI Assessments) for all programs.HRED consolidates HSI domains assessments into DRAFT MANPRINT Assessment for submission to G-1 MANPRINT office.G-1 MANPRINT analysts evaluate the assessment and provide Director with concurrence/non-concurrence recommendation.Army programs require G-1 MANPRINT approval.Air ForceDue to organizational alignment, the AF is currently determining the deliverables, in addition to HSI requirements and resources.Coast GuardDo not have an HSI plan deliverable.Coordinate with PM to develop Manpower Requirements Determination Estimate, and closely monitor contractual language for MPTE requirements.
16Technology Development Production & Deployment HSI in Systems Acquisition: Related Program DocumentationUser Needs & Technology OpportunitiesProcess entry at Milestones A, B, or CEntrance criteria met before entering phaseEvolutionary Acquisition or Single Step to Full CapabilityAB(Program Initiation)CIOCFOCMaterielSolutionsAnalysisTechnology DevelopmentEngineering &ManufacturingDevelopmentProduction & DeploymentOperations & SupportConcept DecisionCritical DesignReviewLRIP/IOT&EFRP DecisionReviewPre-Systems AcquisitionSystems AcquisitionSSMP - Systems SEAPRINT Management PlanTAD - Target Audience DescriptionAS Acquisition StrategyAPB - Acquisition Program BaselineICD Initial Capabilities DocumentHSIP - Human Systems Integration Plan – lay out the tasks to be completed for each for the 7 domains and how these tasks will be integrated into the systems engineering plan.TEMP - Test and Evaluation Master Plan – should include human performance modeling, human performance testing, and usability testingMER - Manpower Estimate ReportCDD - Capabilities Description DocumentNTSP - Navy Training Systems PlanCPD - Capabilities Production DocumentNTSPMERCDDHSIPUpdateCPDICDSSMPTADAPBASTEMPKEYRequirements / Required (CJCSI/M C)HSI / Required (Title 10, DoD 5000, SECNAV C)HSI / RecommendedProgram Management / Required (DoD 5000)
17HSI is System Design: System Elements Warfighting systems are complex Design must consider technical capabilities and operational realities Operations, maintenance, & support are equally importantPRIMEOPERATINGEQUIPMENTSOFTWAREPERSONNELTRAININGSUPPORTTECHNICALDATASUPPLYMAINTENANCEOTHERELEMENTSFACILITIESTEST ANDTRANSPORTATIONAND HANDLINGCONSUMABLERESOURCESTHESYSTEMAll of these elements influence system design. Accounting for the human part of these improves design by incorporating the entire trade space.
18HSI Success Stories: Virginia Class Submarine Ergo Man avatars used in 3D CAD environment for real-time human performance assessments across multiple design configurationsFull scale mock ups of CACC to support Concept of Operations Exercises (COOPEX) evaluated:Layout / egressOperator visibility / reachSafetyTeam CommsSituation AwarenessPre-MS BSSN 774 Design ConceptMillions saved in Life Cycle CostPhotonics system allowed enhanced W/S team configuration in CACCDocumented Impact areas:Life Cycle Cost avoidanceSafetyHuman Performance EnhancementsManpower / Workload Reduction (reduction of 7 crew members compared with SSN 688I)3D CAD View of CACCThe ROI has been realized by reduced technical & schedule risk, reduced acquisition costs, and cost avoidance of rework if evaluations had been conducted at IOC.181818
19HSI Success Stories: CREW 3.1 Dismounted CREW device strives to meet JCREW HSI requirements.Counter Radio-Controlled IED Electronic Warfare (CREW) 3.1 is Manpack Variant JammerResponse to JUONS (no HSI rqts. in place)HSI Organized in LogisticsJCREW is follow-on ACAT programAn example of awearable CREW system.3 HSI Heuristic EvaluationsSignificant HSI Findings:Harness Straps Interfere w/ Battle Gear esp. in proneBattery Interferes w/ Battle Gear esp. in proneAntenna Breakage UnacceptableDesign ChangesHarness Design ImprovedBattery Relocated to backAntenna RuggedizedHSI is a rqtfor JCREWCREW HSI Evals resulted in early design changes and an increase to antenna reliability, reducing TOC.191919
20HSI Success Stories: LCS 1 Hearing Protection Entire crew has custom molded hearing protectionSolid plugSleep plugCommunications plug3D CAD model, “Designer Noise”, developed under SBIR N98-094, predicted the ship board noise aboard a high-speed ship such as LCS 1.USS Freedom (LCS 1) UnderwayCustom molded earplugs provide a consistent fit for each wearer, increasing hearing protection effectiveness.6 month follow up revealed >95 % crew retained pre-deployment hearing levelsPrototype for flight deck cranial custom molded earplugs on USS EISENHOWERDocumented Impact Areas: Safety, hearing loss/tinnitus disability cost avoidance, Human Performance enhancement (communications).LCS 1 Custom Molded Earplug Suite202020
21HSI in Systems Acquisition: SECNAV 5000.2D (16-Oct-2008) The PM shall apply HSI as part of a systems engineeringapproach. HSI is that aspect of systems engineering and PM’sefforts that addresses the extent to which humans will berequired to operate, maintain, and support the resultant design, including analysis to reduce manpower, improve human performance, improve system reliability and usability, and minimize personnel risk.7.2.1 HSI in Acquisition. PMs and sponsors shall address HSI throughout all phases of the acquisition process to optimize total system performance, minimize total ownership costs, …
22HSI in Systems Acquisition Materiel SolutionsAnalysisTechnologyDevelopmentEngineering &ManufacturingProduction andDeploymentOperations andSupportPre-Systems AcquisitionSystems AcquisitionSustainmentABCIOCFOCMission DecompositionFunctional DecompositionsTop Down Functional AnalysesAlternative Manning StrategiesUser-Centered Concepts of OperationTraining Concepts of OperationDisplay and Control GuidelinesDisplay and Control Reference ModelHSI Performance MetricsHSI RequirementsRequirements ReviewsHSI Plan Review/AcceptanceQuantitative RequirementsPerformance MetricsHSI DocumentationHSI Design Review/CertificationUsability Test Plans/TestingTest Plan ReviewsHSI Software DevelopmentHSI Software ValidationHSI Software VerificationTestingTraining System/Documentation ReviewMaintainability ValidationConcept Refinement EvolutionTask AnalysesFunctional AllocationManning AnalysesWorkload AnalysesTeam and Individual ReqtsPersonnel Skill ReqtsTraining Reqts AnalysisTraining System ReqmtsHSI Test BedDisplay PrototypingUser Interface HardwareControlsHuman Performance ModelingExperimental DesignTechnology DemonstrationsEC Concept PaperCPCR ReviewECP ReviewRequirements ElicitationFleet Feedback AnalysisMPT Effectiveness
23HSI in Acquisition Scenarios HSI in Systems AcquisitionModernization of Legacy SystemsAdd HSI to upgrades, consider future benefitsDerive HSI Issues from:Lessons learned from predecessor systemEvolving CONOPS and doctrineImpact of new capabilitiesHSI in Acquisition ScenariosNew Systems Acquisition“Clean-Sheet-of-Paper” approachZero manning until justifiedTop Down Requirements Analysis (TDRA)Human Centered Design (HCD)ID HSI requirements for each phaseEvolutionary acquisition; spiral developmentPrototype to Production AcquisitionPerformance Specs should track incremental improvements on:Reducing cognitive workload while enhancing decision-making abilitiesImproving Human-machine interfacesIncreasing sustained performance abilityPreventing or minimizing human errorMajor approaches: task network and human-in-the-loop simulationCOTS/NDI AcquisitionProvide input to ensure the developer is responsive to needs but aware of:Technical and logistic risksAffordability constraintsProvide input into requirements for NDI concepts and issuesProvide input to TOC determinationsHSI is appropriate for any type of acquisition. This chart highlights different acquisition types, but it is clear that HSI can significantly improve all of them. HSI is most effective if incorporated from the start, but incorporating HSI any time in a program will improve the outcome.23