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Atomic Parity Violation in Ytterbium, K. Tsigutkin, D. Dounas-Frazer, A. Family, and D. Budker

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PV Amplitude: Current results Accuracy is affected by HV amplifier noise, fluctuations of stray fields, and laser drifts → to be improved =39(4) stat. (5) syst. mV/cm | |=8.7±1.4× ea 0

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Sources of parity violation in atoms Z 0 -exchange between e and nucleus P-violating, T-conserving product of axial and vector currents is by a factor of 10 larger than leading to a dominance of the time-like nuclear spin-independent interaction (A e,V N ) A contribution to APV due to Z 0 exchange between electrons is suppressed by a factor ~1000 for heavy atoms.

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Nuclear Spin-Independent (NSI) electron-nucleon interaction NSI Hamiltonian in non-relativistic limit assuming equal proton and neutron densities (r) in the nucleus: The nuclear weak charge Q W to lowest order in the electroweak interaction is The nuclear weak charge is protected from strong-interaction effects by conservation of the nuclear vector current. Thus, APV measurements allows for extracting weak couplings of the quarks and for searching for a new physics beyond SM NSI interaction gives the largest PNC effect compared to other mechanisms PV interaction is a pseudo-scalar mixes only electron states of same angular momentum

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NSI interaction and particle physics implications APV utilizes low-energy system and gives an access to the weak mixing angle, Sin 2 ( W ), at low-momentum transfer. J.L. Rosner, PRD 1999 V.A. Dzuba, V.V. Flambaum, and O.P. Sushkov, PRA 1997 J. Erler and P. Langacker, Ph.Lett. B 1999

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Isotope ratios and neutron distribution The atomic theory errors can be excluded by taking ratios of APV measurements along an isotopic chain. While the atomic structure cancels in the isotope ratios, there is an enhanced sensitivity to the neutron distribution n (r). f(r) is the variation of the electron wave functions inside the nucleus normalized to f(0)=1. R is sensitive to the difference in the neutron distributions.

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~Z 3 scaling of APV effects Considering the electron wave functions in nonrelativistic limit and point- like nucleus the NSI Hamiltonian becomes: Since it is a local and a scalar operator it mixes only s and p 1/2 states. Z due to scaling of the probability of the valence electron to be at the nucleus Z from the operator p, which near the nucleus (unscreened by electrons) Z. |Q W | N~Z. Strong enhancement of the APV effects in heavy atoms

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Signature of the weak interaction in atoms h NSI mixes s 1/2 and p 1/2 states of valence electron A PV of dipole-forbidden transition. If A PC is also induced, the amplitudes interfere. Interference E-fieldStark-effect E1 PC-amplitude E E1-PV interference term is odd in E Reversing E-field changes transition rate Transition rate A PV A Stark

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Atomic structure of Yb 3 D 1 By observing the 6s 2 1 S 0 – 6s6p 3 P nm decay the pumping rate of the 6s 2 1 S 0 – 6s5d 3 D nm transition is determined. The population of 6s6p 3 P 0 metastable level is probed by pumping the 6s6p 3 P 0 - 6s7s 3 S nm transition. Proposed by D. DeMille, PRL 1995

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Yb isotopes and abundances C.J. Bowers et al, PRA 1999 Seven stable isotopes, two have non-zero spin

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Rotational invariant and geometry of the Yb experiment = 2.24(25) e a 0 /(V/cm) – Stark transition polarizability (Measured by J.Stalnaker at al, PRA 2006) | | = 1.08(24) (Q W /104) e a 0 – Nuclear spin-independent PV amplitude (Calculations by Porsev et al, JETP Lett 1995; B. Das, PRA 1997 ) Reversals: B – even E – odd – odd

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PV effect on line shapes: even isotopes PV-Stark interference terms 174 Yb Rate modulation under the E-field reversal yields:

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Experimental setup Yb density in the beam ~10 10 cm -3 E-field up to 15 kV/cm, spatial homogeneity 99% Reversible B-field up to 100 G, homogeneity 99% Light collection efficiency: Interaction region: ~0.2% (556 nm) Detection region: ~25%

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Optical system and control electronics Light powers: Ar + : 12W Ti:Sapp (816 nm): 1W Doubler (408 nm): 50 mW PBC: Asymmetric design, 22 cm Finesse Power 10 W Locking: Pound-Drever-Hall technique

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Fast (70 Hz) E-modulation scheme to avoid low-frequency noise and drift issues Transition rates E-field modulation m = -1 m = +1 m = 0 R0R0 R -1 R +1 1S01S0 3D13D1 PV-asymmetry:

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Fast E-modulation scheme: Profiles Effective integration time: 10 s p-p Shot noise limited SNR in respect to PV signal ~2 (for 1 s integration time) 0.1% accuracy in 70 hours Lineshape scan: ~20 s E-field reversal: 14 ms (70 Hz) B-field reversal: 20 minutes Polarization angle: 10 minutes E-field magnitude B-field magnitude Angle magnitude DC bias 43 V/cm 174 Yb E 0 =5 kV/cm E dc =40 V/cm = /4

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PV Amplitude: Current results Accuracy is affected by HV amplifier noise, fluctuations of stray fields, and laser drifts → to be improved =39(4) stat. (5) syst. mV/cm | |=8.7±1.4× ea 0

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Fast E-modulation scheme: Systematics Assume stray electric and magnetic fields (non-reversing dc) and small ellipticity of laser light: PV asymmetry and systematics give four unknowns: Reversals of B-field and polarization (± /4) yield four equations Solve for PV asymmetry, stray fields, and noise

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Problems Photo-induced PBC mirror deterioration in vacuum Technical noise (above shot-noise) Stray electric fields (~ V/cm) Laser stability

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Power-buildup cavity design and characterization C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, J. Ye. PRA 64, 2001 Ringdown spectroscopy

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Power-buildup cavity design and characterization: mirrors REO set1 =408 nm =408 nm REO set2 =408 nm =408 nmATF Boulder expt. =540 nm =540 nm Transmission 320 ppm 45; 23 ppm 150 ppm 40; 13 S+A losses 120 ppm 213; 83 ppm 30 ppm <1 ppm Mirror set used during the latest APV measurements: Finesse of with ATF mirrors Photodegradation: a factor of 3 increase of S+A losses in 2 runs (~8 hours of exposure with ~10 W of circulating power)

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Summary And then… PV in a string of even isotopes; neutron distributions PV in odd isotopes: NSD PV, Anapole Moments … Completed Work Lifetime Measurements General Spectroscopy (hyperfine shifts, isotope shifts) dc Stark Shift Measurements Stark-Induced Amplitude (β): 2 independent measurements M1 Measurement (Stark-M1 interference) ac Stark shifts measured Verification of PV enhancement

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Sources of NSD interaction A -Anapole moment 2 -Neutral currents QW -Radiative corrections Weak neutral current Anapole moment Hyperfine correction to the weak neutral current

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Anapole moment In the nonrelativistic approximation PNC interaction of the valence nucleon with the nuclear core has the form: n(r) is core density and g is dimensionless effective weak coupling constant for valence nucleon. As a result, the spin acquires projection on the momentum p and forms spin helix Spin helix leads to the toroidal current. This current is proportional to the magnetic moment of the nucleon and to the cross section of the core. Khriplovich & Flambaum Anapole moment is bigger for nuclei with unpaired proton neutron: n =-1.2; g n =-1 proton: p =3.8; g p =5

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Nuclear physics implication: weak meson coupling constants There are 7 independent weak couplings for -, -, and -mesons known as DDH constants. Proton and neutron couplings, g , can be expressed in terms of 2 combinations of these constants: At present the values of the coupling constants are far from being reliably established. The projected measurement of the anapole moment in 173 Yb should provide an important constraint. h0h0

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PV effect on line shapes: odd isotopes NSD ea 0 for odd Yb isotopes =10 -9 ea 0 ` must be measured with 0.1% accuracy

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