Presentation on theme: "1 1) Draw the structure of (S)-1-bromo-1-chlorobutane. 2) Draw the structure of (2R,3R)-2,3-dichloropentane."— Presentation transcript:
1 1) Draw the structure of (S)-1-bromo-1-chlorobutane. 2) Draw the structure of (2R,3R)-2,3-dichloropentane.
2 3) Draw the S isomer of phenylalanine (the compound shown). 4) Label all of the stereogenic atoms in the following compound with map number
3 5) Label all of the stereogenic atoms in the following compound with map number ) Label all of the stereogenic atoms in the following compound with map number 1. 1
4 7) Draw the enantiomer of the following structure. S R
5 8) Draw all stereoisomers of 2,3,4-tribromopentane. You should find two meso structures and one pair of enantiomers. Both meso due to plane of symmetry through 3 rd carbon
6 9) Submit as your answer the structures of all the chiral molecules among the ones shown. chiral
8 10) Submit as your answer the structures of all the molecules among the ones shown that are chiral in their lowest-energy conformations. Enantiomers
11 11) Submit as your answer the structures of all of the compounds among the ones shown that may be optically active. Trigonal planar
12 4 different groups, so chiral, optically active Linear, planar
13 Alkyl Halides and Elimination Reactions Elimination reactions involve the loss of elements from the starting material to form a new bond in the product. General Features of Elimination
14 Equations  and  illustrate examples of elimination reactions. In both reactions a base removes the elements of an acid, HX, from the organic starting material.
15 Removal of the elements HX is called dehydrohalogenation. Dehydrohalogenation is an example of elimination. The curved arrow formalism shown below illustrates how four bonds are broken or formed in the process.
16 The most common bases used in elimination reactions are negatively charged oxygen compounds, such as HO ¯ and its alkyl derivatives, RO ¯, called alkoxides.
17 To draw any product of dehydrohalogenation—Find the carbon. Identify all carbons with H atoms. Remove the elements of H and X from the and carbons and form a bond.
18 Recall that the double bond of an alkene consists of a bond and a bond. Alkenes—The Products of Elimination
19 Alkenes are classified according to the number of carbon atoms bonded to the carbons of the double bond. Figure 8.1 Classifying alkenes by the number of R groups bonded to the double bond
20 Recall that rotation about double bonds is restricted. Figure 8.2
21 Because of restricted rotation, two stereoisomers of 2- butene are possible. cis-2-Butene and trans-2-butene are diastereomers, because they are stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other.
22 Whenever the two groups on each end of a carbon- carbon double bond are different from each other, two diastereomers are possible.
23 In general, trans alkenes are more stable than cis alkenes because the groups bonded to the double bond carbons are further apart, reducing steric interactions.
24 The stability of an alkene increases as the number of R groups bonded to the double bond carbons increases. The higher the percent s-character, the more readily an atom accepts electron density. Thus, sp 2 carbons are more able to accept electron density and sp 3 carbons are more able to donate electron density. Consequently, increasing the number of electron donating groups on a carbon atom able to accept electron density makes the alkene more stable.
25 trans-2-Butene (a disubstituted alkene) is more stable than cis-2-butene (another disubstituted alkene), but both are more stable than 1-butene (a monosubstituted alkene).
26 There are two mechanisms of elimination—E2 and E1, just as there are two mechanisms of substitution, S N 2 and S N 1. E2 mechanism—bimolecular elimination E1 mechanism—unimolecular elimination The E2 and E1 mechanisms differ in the timing of bond cleavage and bond formation, analogous to the S N 2 and S N 1 mechanisms. E2 and S N 2 reactions have some features in common, as do E1 and S N 1 reactions. Mechanisms of Elimination
27 The most common mechanism for dehydrohalogenation is the E2 mechanism. It exhibits second-order kinetics, and both the alkyl halide and the base appear in the rate equation, i.e., E2 rate = k[(CH 3 ) 3 CBr][ ¯ OH] The reaction is concerted—all bonds are broken and formed in a single step.
29 Figure 8.3 An energy diagram for an E2 reaction:
30 There are close parallels between E2 and S N 2 mechanisms in how the identity of the base, the leaving group and the solvent affect the rate. The base appears in the rate equation, so the rate of the E2 reaction increases as the strength of the base increases. E2 reactions are generally run with strong, negatively charged bases like ¯ OH and ¯ OR.
32 The S N 2 and E2 mechanisms differ in how the R group affects the reaction rate.
33 The increase in E2 reaction rate with increasing alkyl substitution can be rationalized in terms of transition state stability. In the transition state, the double bond is partially formed. Thus, increasing the stability of the double bond with alkyl substituents stabilizes the transition state (i.e., lowers E a, which increases the rate of the reaction.
34 Increasing the number of R groups on the carbon with the leaving group forms more highly substituted, more stable alkenes in E2 reactions. In the reactions below, since the disubstituted alkene is more stable, the 3 ° alkyl halide reacts faster than the 1 0 alkyl halide.
36 Recall that when alkyl halides have two or more different carbons, more than one alkene product is formed. When this happens, one of the products usually predominates. The major product is the more stable product—the one with the more substituted double bond. This phenomenon is called the Zaitsev rule. The Zaitsev (Saytzeff) Rule
37 The Zaitsev rule: the major product in elimination has the more substituted double bond. A reaction is regioselective when it yields predominantly or exclusively one constitutional isomer when more than one is possible. Thus, the E2 reaction is regioselective.
38 When a mixture of stereoisomers is possible from a dehydrohalogenation, the major product is the more stable stereoisomer. A reaction is stereoselective when it forms predominantly or exclusively one stereoisomer when two or more are possible. The E2 reaction is stereoselective because one stereoisomer is formed preferentially.
39 The dehydrohalogenation of (CH 3 ) 3 CCI with H 2 O to form (CH 3 ) 2 C=CH 2 can be used to illustrate the second general mechanism of elimination, the E1 mechanism. An E1 reaction exhibits first-order kinetics: Mechanisms of Elimination—E1 rate = k[(CH 3 ) 3 CCI] The E1 reaction proceeds via a two-step mechanism: the bond to the leaving group breaks first before the bond is formed. The slow step is unimolecular, involving only the alkyl halide. The E1 and E2 mechanisms both involve the same number of bonds broken and formed. The only difference is timing. In an E1, the leaving group comes off before the proton is removed, and the reaction occurs in two steps. In an E2 reaction, the leaving group comes off as the proton is removed, and the reaction occurs in one step.
41 Figure 8.6 Energy diagram for an E1 reaction:
42 The rate of an E1 reaction increases as the number of R groups on the carbon with the leaving group increases. The strength of the base usually determines whether a reaction follows the E1 or E2 mechanism. Strong bases like ¯ OH and ¯ OR favor E2 reactions, whereas weaker bases like H 2 O and ROH favor E1 reactions.
43 E1 reactions are regioselective, favoring formation of the more substituted, more stable alkene. Zaitsev’s rule applies to E1 reactions also.
45 S N 1 and E1 reactions have exactly the same first step—formation of a carbocation. They differ in what happens to the carbocation. S N 1 and E1 Reactions Because E1 reactions often occur with a competing S N 1 reaction, E1 reactions of alkyl halides are much less useful than E2 reactions.
46 The transition state of an E2 reaction consists of four atoms from an alkyl halide—one hydrogen atom, two carbon atoms, and the leaving group (X)—all aligned in a plane. There are two ways for the C—H and C—X bonds to be coplanar. Stereochemistry of the E2 Reaction E2 elimination occurs most often in the anti periplanar geometry. This arrangement allows the molecule to react in the lower energy staggered conformation, and allows the incoming base and leaving group to be further away from each other.
47 Figure 8.7 Two possible geometries for the E2 reaction
48 The stereochemical requirement of an anti periplanar geometry in an E2 reaction has important consequences for compounds containing six-membered rings. Consider chlorocyclohexane which exists as two chair conformations. Conformation A is preferred since the bulkier Cl group is in the equatorial position. For E2 elimination, the C-Cl bond must be anti periplanar to the C—H bond on a carbon, and this occurs only when the H and Cl atoms are both in the axial position. The requirement for trans diaxial geometry means that elimination must occur from the less stable conformer, B.
49 Figure 8.8 The trans diaxial geometry for the E2 elimination in chlorocyclohexane
50 Now consider the E2 dehydrohalogenation of cis- and trans-1- chloro-2-methylcyclohexane. This cis isomer exists as two conformations, A and B, each of which as one group axial and one group equatorial. E2 reaction must occur from conformation B, which contains an axial Cl atom.
51 Because conformation B has two different axial hydrogens, labeled H a and H b, E2 reaction occurs in two different directions to afford two alkenes. The major product contains the more stable trisubstituted double bond, as predicted by the Zaitsev rule.
52 The trans isomer of 1-chloro-2-methylcyclohexane exists as two conformers: C, having two equatorial substituents, and D, having two axial substituents. E2 reaction must occur from D, since it contains an axial Cl atom.
53 Because conformer D has only one axial H, the E2 reaction occurs only in one direction to afford a single product. This is not predicted by the Zaitsev rule.
54 The strength of the base is the most important factor in determining the mechanism for elimination. Strong bases favor the E2 mechanism. Weak bases favor the E1 mechanism. When is the Mechanism E1 or E2?
55 A single elimination reaction produces a bond of an alkene. Two consecutive elimination reactions produce two bonds of an alkyne. E2 Reactions and Alkyne Synthesis
56 Two elimination reactions are needed to remove two moles of HX from a dihalide substrate. Two different starting materials can be used—a vicinal dihalide or a geminal dihalide.
57 Stronger bases are needed to synthesize alkynes by dehydrohalogenation than are needed to synthesize alkenes. The typical base used is ¯ NH 2 (amide), used as the sodium salt of NaNH 2. KOC(CH 3 ) 3 can also be used with DMSO as solvent.
58 The reason that stronger bases are needed for this dehydrohalogenation is that the transition state for the second elimination reaction includes partial cleavage of the C—H bond. In this case however, the carbon atom is sp 2 hybridized and sp 2 hybridized C—H bonds are stronger than sp 3 hybridized C—H bonds. As a result, a stronger base is needed to cleave this bond.
59 Figure 8.9 Example of dehydrohalogenation of dihalides to afford alkynes
60 Good nucleophiles that are weak bases favor substitution over elimination—Certain anions generally give products of substitution because they are good nucleophiles but weak bases. These include I ¯, Br ¯, HS ¯, ¯ CN, and CH 3 COO ¯. Predicting the Mechanism from the Reactants—S N 1, S N 2, E1 or E2.
61 Bulky nonnucleophilic bases favor elimination over substitution—KOC(CH 3 ) 3, DBU, and DBN are too sterically hindered to attack tetravalent carbon, but are able to remove a small proton, favoring elimination over substitution.
62 Figure 8.10 Determining whether an alkyl halide reacts by an S N 1, S N 2, E1, or E2 mechanism