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Answers for infrastructure and cities.Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. September 2002 2 nd Generation Models for Modeling of Renewable.

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Presentation on theme: "Answers for infrastructure and cities.Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. September 2002 2 nd Generation Models for Modeling of Renewable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Answers for infrastructure and cities.Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. September 2002 2 nd Generation Models for Modeling of Renewable Sources (Wind & PV) in PSS ® E Presented by Jay Senthil and Yuriy Kazachkov, Siemens PTI Renewable Energy Modeling task Force (REMTF) Workshop, Salt Lake City, June 17, 2014 Siemens Power Technologies International

2 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Discussion Outline Representing wind turbines and Photo Voltaic (PV) in PSS ® E Power Flow PSS ® E Dynamic Simulation models of wind turbines and PV systems 2 nd Generation Generic wind turbine and PV models in PSS ® E Test results for 2 nd Generation wind and PV models Parameterization of 2 nd Generation Generic Model for Siemens 2.3 MW and 3 MW Wind machines Recent developments- Plant controller for multi-unit application Issues in Modeling of Wind and PV type devices Summary Page 2

3 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Representation of Wind Turbine in PSS ® E Power Flow Wind machine explicitly identified in power flow data Reactive power boundary conditions : Limits specified by QT and QB (i.e., same a non-wind machines) Limits determined from the machine’s active power output and a specified power factor Fixed reactive power setting determined from the machine’s active power output and a specified power factor (typical for induction machines) Page 3

4 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Modeling in Power Flow - Real Power Direct MW dispatch as for conventional machines. User responsible for aggregation of original wind turbines to equivalent machines. Page 4

5 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Modeling in Power Flow - Reactive Power Type 1 and Type 2 WTGs: If (for example), Q gen consumed is ½ P gen (i.e. PF  0.9 under-excited): For example, for WTG rated at 100 MW; Q gen = Q min = Q max =  50 Mvar; may want to provide 50 Mvar shunt capacitors at the equivalent WTG terminals. Page 5

6 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Modeling in Power Flow - Reactive Power Type 3 and Type 4 WTGs: For fixed power factor (PF ref ) control, set Q gen = Q min = Q max = Q ref = P gen  tan[arccos (PF ref )] For steady-state voltage control using WTGs with PF range  0.95, set Q max = P gen  tan[arccos (0.95)] =  Q min For example, for 100 MW WPP using WTGs with +/-0.95 PF range, set Q max =  33 Mvar and Q min =  33 Mvar. Page 6

7 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Source: Dynamic Performance of Wind Power Generation Working Group – IEEE PES PSCE – Seattle, WA Collector System Equivalencing Methodology Page 7 Example (N=18, I=21) Computation of equivalent collector system parameters for N wind turbine generators and I branches:

8 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. References [1] WECC Wind Generator Modeling Group, “WECC Wind Power Plant Power Flow Modeling Guide,” 2008. [2] Muljadi, E.; Butterfield C.P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hocheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C. “Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant.” IEEE Power Engineering Society, General Meeting, June 12-16, 2006, Montreal, Quebec. [3] Wind Modeling IEEE Tutorial. 2008, Pittsburgh, PN; 2009, Seattle, WA Page 8

9 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Representation of Wind Turbine in PSS ® E Dynamic Simulation User prepares dynamic raw data file (“dyr” file) by following example in modeling package documentation Two distinct groups of Wind Models: Vendor specific models: are provided as user-written models. To represent these machines in power flow, designate the machines as ‘Not a Wind Machine’ in the PSS ® E power flow generator data record. Models can be downloaded from: http://w3.usa.siemens.com/smartgrid/us/en/transmission- grid/products/grid-analysis-tools/transmission-system- planning/Pages/transmission-system- planning.aspx?tabcardname=pss%c2%aee%20user%20supporthttp://w3.usa.siemens.com/smartgrid/us/en/transmission- grid/products/grid-analysis-tools/transmission-system- planning/Pages/transmission-system- planning.aspx?tabcardname=pss%c2%aee%20user%20support Generic Wind Models: these models are supplied as part of PSS ® E library Page 9

10 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Generic Wind Models in PSS ® E Siemens PTI has been closely involved in efforts of various WECC working groups to develop generic models all 4 types (Types 1 through 4) for wind turbines. Idea is to create generic models that are parametrically adjustable to represent specific wind turbines available in the market. All 4 types became standard PSS ® E models in Version 32 and above. Page 10

11 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. PSS ® E 1st Generation of Generic Wind Models Above generic model are available as standard library model starting PSS ® E 32 Page 11

12 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. 2 nd Generation Generic Wind Turbine Models PSS ® E 2 nd Generation Wind Models consistent with WECC REMTF recommendations. Same set of models to represent different types manufacturers by changing parameters. PSS ® E Model names for 2 nd generation models: REGCAU1: Generator converter model for Types 3, 4 & large scale PV REECAU1: Electrical control model for Types 3 & 4 REECBU1: Electrical control model for large scale PV REPCAU1: Plant control model for Types 3 & 4 WTDTAU1: Drive Train model for Types 3 & 4 WTPTAU1: Pitch control model for Type 3 WTARAU1: Aerodynamic model for Type 3 WTTQAU1: Torque control model for Type 3 PSS ® E 33.4 and above for 2 nd generation wind, PSS ® E 33.5 and above for large scale PV models Page 12

13 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Testing of 2 nd Generation Models Details of Test Simulation: Time step (Δt = ¼ cycle) Run flat (no disturbance) for 1 s Apply 3-phase fault at bus 41902, run to 1.1 s Remove fault, trip branch between 41901 & 41906, run to 10 s Page 13

14 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models WT4 – plot of vt Page 14

15 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models WT4 – plot of pg Page 15

16 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models WT4 – plot of qg Page 16

17 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models WT3 – plot of vt Page 17

18 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models WT3 – plot of pg Page 18

19 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models WT3 – plot of qg Page 19

20 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models PV – plot of vt Page 20

21 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models PV – plot of pg Page 21

22 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Test results for 2 nd Generation models PV – plot of qg Page 22

23 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Parameterization of 2 nd Generation Generic Model for the 2.3 MW & 3 MW Siemens WT The 2 nd generation Renewable Energy Generic Model includes several features that can be successfully used in the course of parameterization of this model for some vendor’s implementation. Couple of examples: Low Voltage Power Limit of the generator/converter REGCA module can be used to simulate ramping up active power after fault clearing The drive train WTDTA module can be used for mimicking the action of the controller responsible for damping of the machine rotor torsional oscillations Vdl1/Vdl2 look-up tables of the electrical control REECA module can be used for simulating the P-Q capability of the unit under fault conditions. Page 23

24 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. 2.3 MW Siemens WT Terminal Voltage (Close-in fault) Page 24

25 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. 2.3 MW Siemens WT Power (Close-in fault) Page 25

26 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. 2.3 MW Siemens WT Reactive current (Close-in fault) Page 26

27 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Recent Developments Upgrade of the 2 nd Generation RE plant controller Generic Renewable Plant Control Model REPCAU1 is designed to interact with the local control of the single equivalent (aggregated) unit with control of active and reactive power (Pref and Qref) Active power path is used for frequency control. The reactive power path may be used to control either the POI voltage or reactive power interchange between the plant and the grid or a power factor at the POI. Siemens PTI has upgraded the REPCAU1 model to a new REPCMU1 model with the capability to supervise multiple WTGs. The new REPCMU1 user written model has the same dynamics of the active and reactive power paths as a standard REPCAU1 model and a provision to supervise local controls of up to 150 WTGs. Page 27

28 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Testing with 4 WTGs supervised by REPCMU1 plant controller Page 28 POI Voltage (red), Command from the Plant Controller (blue) as a Response to Step Change in Plant Controller Voltage Reference (black).

29 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Issues in Modeling of Wind & PV type devices Issue 1: Fictitious Frequency Spikes Frequency Spike during and after the fault to prevent fictitious frequency spikes. Problem is very acute in weak systems. Causes False Frequency Relay Trips. Temporary Solution: Disabling Frequency Relay during fault. Long-term Solution: Better frequency calculation – Siemens PTI is investigating this. Page 29

30 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Issues in Modeling of Wind & PV type devices Issue 2: Network Non Convergence Problem: Network does not converge at the onset of the fault and after fault clearing Possible Cause: During the fault, unlike synchronous machines, no inertia to fix Ө, and hence possibly no voltage angle reference, WTG control model tries to control P,Q; it needs voltage angle reference to compute the complex current for the given Ө. PSS®E uses current injection, in the example, voltage is determined by current: YV = I Page 30

31 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Summary 2 nd Generation wind models are available in PSS ® E starting Version 33.4. 2 nd Generation PV models are available in PSS ® E starting Version 33.5. Models can be parametrically adjusted to represent any specific wind turbines available in the market. Page 31

32 Restricted © Siemens AG 2014 All rights reserved. Questions? Siemens PTI 400 State Street Schenectady, NY 12305 (518) 395-5013 (518) 395-5132 E-mail: jayapalan.senthil@siemens.com jayapalan.senthil@siemens.com yuriy.kazachkov@siemens.com


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