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Architecting and Designing for Accessibility Darien Large.

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Presentation on theme: "Architecting and Designing for Accessibility Darien Large."— Presentation transcript:

1 Architecting and Designing for Accessibility Darien Large

2 Agenda How to talk about Disability and Accessibility on the Web Accessibility Guidelines Laws and Standards

3 Disability versus Handicap An inability is anything a person cannot do. An impairment is a physiological disorder or injury. A disability is an inability to execute some class of movements, or pick up sensory information of some sort, or perform some cognitive function, that typical unimpaired humans are able to execute or pick up or perform. A handicap is an inability to accomplish something one might want to do, that most others around one are able to accomplish. “Disability, Inability and Cyberspace”. John Perry, Elizabeth Macken, Neil Scott, Jan McKinley. August 21, 1996

4 Intrinsic conception of disability (inability, handicap) A disabled individual is one who cannot make some movement that the majority of the population can make, or lacks some sensory capacity that the majority of the population has. As a result, disabled individuals are handicapped in many ways; they cannot realistically expect to accomplish many goals that others can accomplish. “Disability, Inability and Cyberspace”. John Perry, Elizabeth Macken, Neil Scott, Jan McKinley. August 21, 1996

5 Circumstantial conception of disability (inability, handicap) A disabled individual is one who cannot make some movement that the majority of the population can make, or lacks some sensory capacity that the majority of the population has. As a result, an individual with a disability may need to use different means than non-disabled individuals standardly use to accomplish certain goals. Handicaps are created when the tools and infrastructure to support these alternative methods are not available. “Disability, Inability and Cyberspace”. John Perry, Elizabeth Macken, Neil Scott, Jan McKinley. August 21, 1996

6 All handicaps on the Web are circumstantial A handicap results from interactions between a person and their environment. But so does an ability. Cyberspace is the most highly mediated informative, communicative, and performative medium in human history. It has vastly extended the accomplishment space of everyone who is able to use it. Everyone requires help in gaining and effectively using information, not only those individuals who have disabilities.

7 That without which the Web is not accessible Textual output and keyboard input are the sine qua non of accessibility. Without these elements, other dimensions of accessibility are difficult or impossible. – Textual output is required for access via screen readers or magnifiers – Keyboard input is the most universal standard of accessibility in computer applications and enables numerous other input methods

8 Accessibility Guidelines

9 Provide appropriate alternative text for images Convey the purpose, not the visual aspect May be provided by textual context alt attribute may be “” (do not omit) longdesc attribute has been removed from HTML5 spec (content should be accessible to all users, not just those with screen readers) Should be succinct and not redundant Same image may have different alternative text depending on function Source: Web Accessibility in Mind, CPD/Utah State University,

10 Accessible Tables Data tables – Use tag (scope=“row”/”col”) to indicate data table – Use tag as label – Use summary attribute for complicated tables – Avoid tables with more than two levels of headers Layout tables – Make visual reading order same as linearized reading order – Remove all html and read table content from beginning to end. Does it make sense? – “Wave” validator is also great for this

11 Accessible Forms Must be keyboard accessible Use care with JavaScript – onChange event in forms is an accessibility land mine – Provide a submit button for menu choices instead Labels should be adjacent (see layout tables) Timed responses should give user chance to ask for more time

12 Accessible Links Links must be keyboard accessible (JavaScript: danger) Do not use # as a link destination Do not use “link”, “link to”, etc. in the text of a link – Screen readers add the work “link” Link text must make sense out of context (no “click here”) – Many screen reader modes alphabetize links on a page or omit intervening text

13 Media Accessibility Captions – Text versions of spoken word – Also describe other sounds in text (sound effects, music, etc.) Audio Descriptions – Audio tracks that describe visual aspects of a scene Transcripts – Greatly facilitates reuse and SEO

14 Non-HTML Content PDF Word PowerPoint Flash All of these formats have the ability to contain descriptive markup (resembling html). Use it!

15 Skippable Content Allows users to go directly to main content Global navigation, other repetitive elements should be skippable

16 Color Vision Impairments Do not rely on color 10% of general population has some color vision deficiency

17 Cognitive Accessibility Use headings Write clearly

18 JavaScript Use device independent event handlers (onFocus, not onMouseOver) – If this is not possible, provide redundant navigation – onClick is generally OK, emulated with Enter (avoid onDblClick) Avoid onChange (use submit button instead) Provide alternatives to JavaScript when it cannot be made accessible

19 Laws and Standards

20 Design to Standards! W3C WAI standards are the basis for many international laws governing web accessibility and are a high bar WCAG (web content accessibility guidelines), for Web content developers – perceivable (multimodal), operable (device independent), understandable (predictable), robust (future-proof) ATAG (authoring tool accessibility guidelines), for authoring tool developers – 28 guidelines covering accessible output, prompting for accessibility-related information, making authoring tool itself accessible Source: W3C Web Accessibility Initiative,

21 WAI Continued UAAG (user agent accessibility guidelines), for developers of browsers, media players, assistive technologies – Access to all content, including event-triggered content – User control over rendering – Documentation – Standard APIs

22 WAI Continued Continued WAI-ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications Suite) (In Progress) – Framework for adding attributes to identify features for user interaction, e.g., menus, primary content, banner information, etc. – Technologies to map controls, Ajax live regions, and events to accessibility APIs

23 Section 508 Amendment of Rehabilitation Act of 1973 – Passed in 1986, revised 1998 Requires that federal agencies’ electronic and information technology be accessible to people with disabilities Covers federal agencies and private companies that receive federal funds or are under contract with a federal agency Sets forth requirements significantly more lenient than W3C Source: General Services Administration IT Accessibility and Workforce Division,

24 Resources and References “Disability, Inability and Cyberspace”. John Perry, Elizabeth Macken, Neil Scott, Jan McKinley. August 21, 1996 (http://www- csli.stanford.edu/~jperry/disabilities/batya/batya. html)http://www- csli.stanford.edu/~jperry/disabilities/batya/batya. html W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (http://www.w3.org/WAI/)http://www.w3.org/WAI/ Web Accessibility in Mind/WAVE (http://webaim.org/)http://webaim.org/ Section 508 (http://www.section508.gov/)http://www.section508.gov/


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