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E-Business The Nirvana of Computing Vishnu S. Pendyala.

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2 E-Business The Nirvana of Computing Vishnu S. Pendyala

3 The Agenda §Introduction §B2B: A Survey of Standards and Frameworks §A Framework for EAI: Insights into a Live Project §Business Anytime, Anywhere: The Sun One Architecture §Conclusion

4 Background Process Engineering

5 Inter-Enterprise Process Engineering Source: eccubed

6 “A typical large enterprise has at least 1000 islands of information, encompassing 5,000 or more applications. The main issue facing a typical CIO is how to integrate these islands.” – Michael Stonebraker

7 Enterprise Applications ERP SCM CRM SFA Enterprise Applications ERP SCM CRM SFA B2B Framework Buying Enterprises Supplying Enterprises Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved Interoperability mechanisms

8 E-Commerce An Overview

9 Benefits of E-Commerce  Increased RoI due to: ¦ Cost and time reduction due to automation ¦ Universal reach using existing infrastructure ¦ Increased competitiveness through value additions ¦ Better control on inventory management and other business processes Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved E.g., $10 to $0.50 per healthcare transaction multiplied by ~30 billion transactions per year!

10 E-Commerce Taxonomy Source: Chemdex §Participants: B2C (Amazon), B2B (, C2C (eBay), C2B (Priceline) § Orientation: Seller-centric (online malls: DreamShop), Buyer-centric (shopbots: BargainFinder, Jango); Symmetric (Moai) § Function: Transactional (Amazon, Dell), non- transactional (advertising: SciQuest, Nets Inc) §Focus: Vertical (e-steel); Horizontal (iMALL) §Topology: 1-seller N-buyers (CDNow), N-sellers 1-buyer (Ariba), N-sellers, N-buyers (Neoforma)

11 Primary Variants: B2C and B2B Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

12 Interoperability  Achieved through: § Standards: EDI, XML, XML/EDI, CEN/ISSS § Frameworks: OBI, eCo, RosettaNet, BizTalk,… § Products using the above: BizTalk Server 2000, MarketSite Portal, Project E-collaborate,…. § The Players: § Consortiums: W3C, Oasis, CommerceNet,… § Companies: Microsoft, CommerceOne, Ariba,… § Industry is always ahead of standards, committees, consortiums and academics. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

13 Standards EDI XML

14 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) §Aims to minimize cost, effort, time, errors §Improves data flow through 3 steps: l Convert actual data document into std format: X12 in N. America, UN/EDIFACT in Europe. l Transmit the formatted data over VPN / VAN l Convert the formatted data back into actual doc §Loses to XML due to: l High costs of private network infrastructure and software implementations l No single standard: Plenty of industry-specific versions of the same standard in existence. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

15 Extensible Markup Language (XML) §Gains over HTML: human readable, extensible. §Structure and rendering are isolated from data: l DTDs for structure (schema) and XSL/CSS for rendering are separate files from the.xml file. l XML documents are “queried” rather than “searched” §Parsers written in Java, based on SAX (event based) and DOM (tree based) interfaces. §Advantages: smart searches, wide applicability, works on existing infrastructure, universality. §Still in the lab, needs more time to stabilize. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

16 A Purchase Order in XML Alice Smith 123 Maple Street San Jose CA 1999-05-20 1999-05-25 Urgent, please Lawnmower, model 100W 1 148.95 Shears, model CMPE-2 1 39.98

17 DTD for the Purchase Order ………

18 B2B Frameworks OBI, eCo, BizTalk, RosettaNet

19 Open Buying on the Internet (OBI) §Intended for B2B, high-volume, low-value transactions involving non-strategic materials. §Promoted by many Fortune 500 companies. §Envisioned to provide a universal trading web. §Based on EDI, HTTP, CGI; XML only futuristic. §Designed for robustness and security, achieved through use of digital certificates and signatures. §“OBI object” is EDI-formatted document enveloped with msg headers and optional signature §Leverages several other standards. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

20 Standards used in OBI

21 OBI Architecture Source: Open Buying on the Internet (OBI)

22 OBI: Typical Scenario Requisitioner selects a supplier from corporate intranet page Opens its catalog Seller authenticates digital certificate Item selected and ‘create order’ button pressed OBI order digitally signed Order sent as an OBI object using HTTP/SSL to buyer orgn Buyer Orgn verifies signature Forwards it to internal workflow Background processing done ‘Complete order’ button pressed Order digitally signed by buyer orgn Order sent to seller using http/ssl Seller verifies signature Processes the order as per internal workflow

23 Transport of an OBI Object from Server to Server HTML code used for transmitting an OBI order: Source: Open Buying on the Internet (OBI)

24 OBI: Pros and Cons §Benefits  Results in simple, efficient implementations.  Addresses the issues of security, reliability and robustness.  Provides for customizable catalogs based on the information in digital certificates. §Limitations  Uses HTTP/CGI rather than XML / Servlets / Java: technically primitive.  Fails to provide discovery of new suppliers. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

25 The eCo Framework A CommerceNet Initiative

26 The eCo Specification: Overview  Initiative of CommerceNet, primarily sponsored by Commerce One.  “Market Maker” defines the community standards.  Meta-data about the system arranged in 6 layers.  This meta-data can be defined, published and exchanged between partners.  Partners can discover other businesses, their services and underlying interactions using queries.  XML based documents built using xCBL (XML Common Business Library) of BIDs (Business Interface Definitions) Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

27 The eCo Layers §Network: index of markets. §Businesses: market rules and procedures. §Services: business interfaces and services. §Interactions: types of messages exchanged. §Documents: document types exchanged. §Information Items: type of info in document. §Meta-data stored in “type registries” at each layer. §Each registry publishes an interface which can be queried for type info. §Registry schemas built on XML-based data elements Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

28 Source: The eCo Specification,

29 Sample Query with Returned Document Query: 19990831...

30 eCo: Pros and Cons  Benefits:  Supports International Languages.  Does not endorse any proprietary solutions: architecture is open.  Takes care of the search engine needs, by providing for a gateway web page, titled, “eco.xml.”  Requires only a simple set of compliance rules, providing for incremental development.  Limitations:  Does not stress on the security and reliability of transactions, sufficiently.  Does not cover exception handling in detail. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

31 The BizTalk Framework A Microsoft Initiative

32 BizTalk: Overview §Primarily a Microsoft work. §Provides registration and storage of schemas with automated submission, validation, and versioning process through §Uses Biztags: set of XML tags added as an XML wrapper for a business document. §Uses info in BizTags to determine transport- specific destination addresses. §Envisions a “glue-less world.” §Released first version of its server, last week. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

33 BizTalk: Pros and Cons  Benefits  Uniquely provides versioning of the schemas.  Uses XML with support to non-XML data.  Addresses the issues of legacy systems and proposes a transition plan.  Drawbacks  Has potential overheads: Centralized repository and processing used for XML schemas of partners.  Does not provide a mechanism for discovery of other businesses.  Does not sufficiently deal with security issues.  Does not seem to be open enough: mandatory use of wrapper tags.

34 The RosettaNet Framework RosettaNet Consortium

35 RosettaNet: Overview §Caters to supply chain partners in IT industry. §Draws heavily upon OBI and eCo frameworks. §Specifies Partner Interface Processes (PIPs) and their implementation guidelines for interoperability. §Companies can extend, but not override these implementation guidelines. §The processes are organized in 8 layers. §Defines a set of elements and codes in dictionaries, which are used for creating messages for exchange. §Transports messages in MIME: new x-RosettaNet. Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

36 RosettaNet: Pros and Cons §BENEFITS §Deals in depth with business processes associated with a purchase order, inventory request, etc.: not limited to technical specifications. §Addresses security issues considerably well. §Provides agent protocol support. §DRAWBACKS §Covers only IT and EC industries at present: limited in scope. §Requires more time and effort for initial implementation due to an elaborate set of compliance rules.

37 Comparison of the Frameworks OBI, eCo, BizTalk, RosettaNet

38 (a) eCo: Set of Layers (c) OBI: Encapsulated EDI Docs and Digital Certificates (b) BizTalk: Biztags and Central Repository (d) RosettaNet: Through Dictionaries Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved Interoperability Mechanisms

39 Comparison of the Frameworks

40 Repository management Versioning Validation non-XML Legacy systems support Network Protocol Stack A p p l n L a y e r Discovery language Contract mgt Querying Profile registration Exception handling Intl support implementation guideline Agent Protocol PIP support CGI support Digital Certificate maintenance Catalog customization Profile maintenance Order encapsulation Authentication Value added services Work flow process RosettaNetOBIeCoBizTalkXML basedAll XML elements Message Handling Catalog mgt DBMS support Base-64 encoding Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved Feature Comparison

41 A Framework for Enterprise Application Integration Vishnu S. Pendyala

42 Current EAI Solutions Source: Javaworld

43 Enter: A New Framework for EAI

44 The Broad Picture XML inter- face User Inter- face CRM Business Logic Data XML inter- face User Inter- face Inventory Business Logic XML inter- face User Inter- face Data SFA Business Logic User Inter- face Data Billing Business Logic Events repository Event Editor Process Editor Process Model Repository Integration Engine (translations and messaging) Data XML inter- face The EAI Framework EAI Portal

45 Advantages of the Framework §Flexibility, scalability and extensibility §Single point control, co-ordination and customization through the “EAI portal” §XML Schemas and Stylesheets are reusable building blocks, providing richer and more flexible data structures. §GUI-based configuration, no programming effort, implies reduced training costs. §The interactions are document-based for easy presentation of information.

46 Prototype Architecture Data eCRM Vocabulary JDBC JSP XML DOM XSLT SFA Vocabulary Data XML JDBC DOM Stylesheets Event as XML

47 XML Template for Data Fetch Converter

48 Sample DTD created using XML Authority

49 Process Configurator XML (for use by the integration engine) Event Editor for Process Integration User Input

50 XML Template for Event Editor

51 XML Authority for Event DTD

52 Event Editor GUI: Login Screen

53 Event Editor GUI: After Login

54 Event Editor GUI: After “Done”

55 Schema / Value Transformation Editor XSL Stylesheets CRMSFA Map (User Input) (for use by the integration engine) Process Editor for Data Integration

56 Process Editor GUI: Insert Menu

57 XSL Template for Process Editor

58 Integration Engine The Algorithm:  Invoke the DOM / SAX parser.  Get the element node whose name is Step and its id attribute is 1.  Get its child element node, whose name is process.  From the value of the process node, construct the names of in- xml-file, the.xsl file and the out-xml file. The in-xml file can be known from the 1 st 3 letters of the.xsl file name and the out-xml file name is the same as the.xsl filename, with a “t” prefixed to it. The destination repository (directory) name is the 2 nd set of 3 letters of the xsl filename.  Invoke the apache XSLT processor with in-xml file, the.xsl file and the out-xml file as arguments.  For Step nodes with Id = 2 to the last Step node, repeat the above 3 steps.

59 Data Store Converter §Part of the XML interface §Reads transformed XML file from repository §Uses DOM to write to DBMS §For our scenario, 3 instances reside in: l SFA, Billing, and Inventory Control Systems

60 Moving forward.. Academic Interest Wireless Clients and the advent of Open Net Environment (Sun One) Software Architecture

61 Precursor §Anywhere, any time access to information is the need of the hour. §The number of wireless devices installed worldwide exceeds the number of desktops. §Mobile access provision will soon be imperative for businesses to stay in the market.

62 A Scenario §Sales Representative, Cindy needs to extend her meeting with the client who is out-of-town. §She uses a mobile device to modify her reservation, book a hotel room, pay via mobile carrier bill, and downloads map. §Later, from the meeting room, she checks competitor’s strategy, accesses company’s ERP system, and logs the order in CRM system.

63 Enabling Technology The Server Side §EJB components cater to the service logic, make calls to AAA server. §EJB’s in AAA server use JNDI to access subscriber directory. §Container provides communication protocol, directory access, security. §Container scales to meet different needs, but application programming model is same to developers. §Programmable network allows new services to be added without changing the physical plumbing.

64 Sun ONE Architecture §Web Services based architecture for interoperable, pervasive computing. §A Web service represents a unit of functionality accessible over the web. §It exposes XML interface, can be located through a registry, communicates using XML, and supports loosely-coupled connections. §Based on XML + Java Technologies + Infrastructure Standards (HTTP,SSL)

65 Source: Web Services Developer Model

66 Source:

67 Technologies supporting Web Services §UDDI: 130+ companies developing a universal, UDDI Business Registry - a web-based directory. §WSDL: an XML framework for describing web services. §SOAP: provides XML messaging protocol and supports RPC programming model. §ebXML: B2B XML framework enabling business collaboration thru sharing of Web Services.

68 Conclusion §E-Business evolved from Copyright 2000 - 2002 by Vishnu S. Pendyala, All rights reserved

69 Conclusion §Industrial strength framework for ready applicability. §Drastically improves productivity. §Scope for new sub-projects: l XML-based TP monitor l Performance features like dynamic load balancing, multi-threading and multiprocessing l Robustness features like caching, replication, disk logging l Real-time analysis

70 References §Shim, S., Pendyala, V.S., Sundaram, M., and Gao, J.Z., B2B E-Commerce Frameworks, IEEE Computer, October 2000. §Pendyala, V.S., Towards a Paperless World, §Stonebraker, M., Integrating Islands of Information, EAI Journal, October 1999. §Edwards, K., Architecting e-Business Solutions with IBM’s Business Transformation and Integration Middleware, IBM Inc., August 2000. §Lang, J.H., IBM MQSeries Integrator V2.0 The Next Generation Message Broker, http://www- grator/msgbrokers.htmhttp://www- grator/msgbrokers.htm

71 References (Contd) §WebMethods Inc., Building Business Value Through B2B Integration,, May 2000 §Kotok, A., ebXML: Assembling the Rubik’s Cube,, August 2000. §Pan, A., Enterprise Application Integration – Message Broker Style, 1999/swol-08-itarchitect_p.html 1999/swol-08-itarchitect_p.html §Compaq Inc, Enterprise Application Integration: Zero Latency Enterprise White Paper, http://www.compaq.com §Nortel Networks Inc., Customizing Clarify Application, User Guide, 2000.

72 References (Contd) §NimbleTechnology Inc., The Nimble Integration Suite,, 2000. §BEA Systems Inc, BEA E-Commerce Integration Technology: End-to-End Solutions for Integrating Your E- Business,, March 2000 §Bodkin, R., Using XML effectively in eBusiness architectures, 02.html 02.html §Wheatstone Inc., Application Integration – White Paper, §Bourret, R., XML and Databases, November 2000

73 References (Contd) §Laddad, R., XML APIs for Databases, January 2000 §Bos, B., XML Representation of a Relational Database, July 1997 §Kalakota, R., and Robinson, M., E-Business: A Roadmap for success, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, February 2000. §Harold, R.E., XML Bible, IDG Books, 1999. §W3C Consortium, XML Technical Reference,** §D’Souza, D.F., Wills, A.C., Objects, Components, and Frameworks with UML: The Catalysis Approach, Addison- Wesley, Massachusetts, 1999

74 References l BizTalk, “Framework Specification 1.0a”, January 2000,. l Evan Frook, John, “RosettaNet to Ease Web Buying,”. l James Kobielus, "What Microsoft is doing right and wrong with BizTalk," html (July 1999). l Microsoft Inc., "BizTalk Framework Document Design Guide,".

75 References (Contd..) l Nelson, Chris, “The ABC of EDI,” (March 2000). l Ogbuji, Uche, “XML The Future of EDI?,” (March 2000). l Open Buying on the Internet, “OBI Specification,”. l Richard Karpinski, "Procurement Vendors Tussle Over XML," Internet Week, February 9, 1999. l Kotok, Alan, “Introduction to XML and EDI,” (March 2000).

76 References (Contd..) l Robert J. Glushko, Jay M. Tenenbaum, and Bart Meltzer, “An XML framework for Agent-based E- commerce,” March 1999/Vol. 42, No. 3 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM. l RosettaNet, “Framework Specifications”,. l World Wide Web Consortium, “Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Specification, W3C Recommendation REC-xml-19980210”, February 10 1998..

77 References §Enabling the wireless net effect, s/wireless_whitepaper.pdf s/wireless_whitepaper.pdf §Sun[tm] Open Net Environment Technical White Paper ne/wp-arch/ §eMobile: A Sample End-to-End Application - Part 2, bilePartII.pdf bilePartII.pdf

78 Thank You!!

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