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Benefits of Web Standards Daniel M. Frommelt University of Wisconsin - Platteville Copyright Daniel M. Frommelt, 2004. This work is the intellectual property.

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Presentation on theme: "Benefits of Web Standards Daniel M. Frommelt University of Wisconsin - Platteville Copyright Daniel M. Frommelt, 2004. This work is the intellectual property."— Presentation transcript:

1 Benefits of Web Standards Daniel M. Frommelt University of Wisconsin - Platteville Copyright Daniel M. Frommelt, This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.

2 Benefits of Web Standards Presentation and documentation are

3 Benefits of Web Standards Concept of Web Standards Concept of DIV “skeleton” structure Concept of CSS “skins” markup Reasons to make the switch

4 “Web Standards?” Web Standard Basics

5 “So what are Web Standards?” XHTML 1.0 or higher CSS Level 1 & CSS Level 2 DOM Level 1 & DOM Level 2 ECMAScript 262 (current JavaScript) Web Standard Basics Web Recommendations Standards

6 “What the heck is XHTML?” “The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML™) is a family of current and future document types and modules that reproduce, subset, and extend HTML, reformulated in XML. XHTML Family document types are all XML-based, and ultimately are designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents. XHTML is the successor of HTML, and a series of specifications has been developed for XHTML.” Web Standard Basics

7 “How do I convert to XHTML?” Declare the DOCTYPE Tag and attributes in lower case Attributes must have quoted values All tags must have an end tag ( ) Nest tags correctly Validate the page (http://validator.w3.org) Web Standard Basics

8 “Any Benefits to XHTML?” More Accessible Eliminates silly mistakes in code Renders more accurately in browsers Backward AND forward compatible First step toward Web Standards Web Standard Basics

9 XHTML is the Future XHTML 1.0 Transitional XHTML 1.0 Strict XHTML 1.1 XHTML 2.0 (W3C Working Draft) No more development of HTML! Web Standard Basics

10 Table Design Tables can build a nice layout Tables are predictable However, Tables bloat the code Can we eliminate tables? DIV “skeleton” structure

11 Table Purpose “Tables should not be used purely as a means to layout document content as this may present problems when rendering to non-visual media. Additionally, when used with graphics, these tables may force users to scroll horizontally to view a table designed on a system with a larger display. To minimize these problems, authors should use style sheets to control layout rather than tables.” DIV “skeleton” structure

12 Alternative Design Method DIVs can be an alternate to DIVs are a container like a table cell CSS can position the DIV xxx #article{ width:250px; padding:5px; float:right;} DIV “skeleton” structure

13 DIV Design Use DIVs to create the skeleton of the page. There should be no display-specific information in the XHTML The Goal: separate the information from the layout / presentation of the page Layout is entirely controlled by CSS DIV “skeleton” structure

14 DIV Design Identify major sections of the page –Masthead (Logo and Title) –Menu –Content –Search –Footer Don’t overuse the DIVs! Don’t worry about positioning in the XHTML! DIV “skeleton” structure

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16 DIV Structure? Learning curve of DIV Future of browsers is uncertain WYSIWYG Editors Current Topics

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18 Skinning Concept CSS “skinning” The skin is the design placed over the skeleton structure It’s like a cell phone -Model of phone is the skeleton -Face plates are the skins -You can swap face plates

19 Skinning Concept CSS “skinning” Like a cell phone, web pages can have “face plates” (skins) that are changeable The CSS skins have nothing to do with the XHTML markup External CSS file Easily modifiable Faster Redesign

20 Overview of New Structure CSS “skinning” XHTML DIVs are like the parts of the phone (antenna, buttons, speaker, etc.) Layout CSS is like the different models of phones (where parts are positioned) Skin CSS is like the face plates

21 CSS Zen Garden The best example showing the power of CSS skinning! Web Standards don’t have to be ugly! CSS Skinning Topics

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27 “How do I build this?” Style sheets for a skinnable website: 1.Base CSS – simple structure 2.Advanced CSS – final 3.Skin CSS – 4.Fonts CSS 5.Printer Friendly CSS Developing Skins

28 “Why so many CSS files?” Setting the stage for forward AND backward - fix non-standard browsers Layout CSS separate from Skin Fonts can now be adjusted quickly Printer Friendly without the hassle! It’s just too cool! Developing Skins

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31 Emphasis on Information In 1995, Al Gore coined the phrase: “Information Superhighway” NOT “Design Superhighway” Reasons to follow Web Standards

32 Emphasis on Information Web is about delivering information Design must be secondary You cannot control what user agent will open the page, so you must be ready Backward and forward compatibility is essential Reasons to follow Web Standards

33 Backward Compatibility Compliant with older browser without having to make a separate set of pages Design fails gracefully – It’s not pretty, but the information is there! Reasons to follow Web Standards

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35 Forward Compatibility More compliant user agents get better designed / presented information Not committed to one platform / browser Ready for what the future brings –PDA –Cell phone –TV –Screenreaders Reasons to follow Web Standards

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38 Bandwidth Savings Using web standards saves on bandwidth Code reduction with limited markup provides cleaner and simpler code CSS files are cached Reasons to follow Web Standards

39 Slashdot Example Slashdot is a well known site: Copied the index on July 22, 2003 HTML 3.2 code Table driven design Reasons to follow Web Standards

40 Slashdot Example Stages There are four stages (folders): Original file as of July 22, 2003 XHTML with no markup Re-structured XHTML – identify data Web Standards Version Additional information and example zip file is online at: Reasons to follow Web Standards

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42 Slashdot Bandwidth Savings Actual savings per page: Without caching CSS: ~2KB With caching CSS: ~9KB That’s not a lot, however it adds up! Reasons to follow Web Standards

43 Slashdot Bandwidth Savings Slashdot serves 50 million pages a month, which is ~18 pages per second. (http://slashdot.org/faq/slashmeta.shtml#sm300) Savings per day: Without caching CSS: ~3.15 GB With caching CSS: ~14.0 GB Reasons to follow Web Standards

44 Personal Bandwidth Story Over a year ago… we made the leap. Saved a few KB, and thought “big deal.” Network team PANICKED because of unexpected drop in server load. Everyone is much happier / wiser now! Reasons to follow Web Standards

45 In Conclusion Web Standards is a journey Not a quick fix, so don’t expect it Major benefits! –Forward / Backward compatible –Bandwidth savings –Easier transitions for future updates –Printer Friendly! Web Standards

46 “Don’t Panic” Web Standards

47 Personal Speaking Story WebDev Share Presenter 2003 Met Jeffrey Zeldman, A List Apart Asked to write “Retooling Slashdot” Which immediately got “Slashdotted” Web Standards

48 Presentation & Documentation Benefits of Web Standards Copyright Daniel M. Frommelt, This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.


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