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FROM AACR2 to RDA (and a few things in between) The history and context of RDA development Jenny Stephens, National Library of Australia, October 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "FROM AACR2 to RDA (and a few things in between) The history and context of RDA development Jenny Stephens, National Library of Australia, October 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 FROM AACR2 to RDA (and a few things in between) The history and context of RDA development Jenny Stephens, National Library of Australia, October 2010 Revised 2012 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License

2 Overview From AACR2 to RDA, Part I: History and Context FRBR/FRAD From AACR2 to RDA, Part II: Structure

3 Overview TODAY - History of RDA Development International context

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5 History of RDA Why replace AACR2? International Conference 1997 – Analysis of underlying structure of AACR2 – Intellectual Content vs. Physical format Too much to just “amend” AACR2

6 History of RDA AACR3? 2004 proposal for AACR3: – Extensive revision of Part I of AACR2 – Alignment with FRBR – Addition of a third section for authority control Constraints of working within existing AACR structure

7 History of RDA 2005 – new standard Built on the foundations of AACR2 BUT New structure and new emphasis Designed for the digital world Adaptable and flexible for the future

8 History of RDA Three parts: – Resource description – Provision of Access points – Formulation of data used for authority control Focused on user tasks Independent of presentation/encoding standards More user-friendly wording, layout and formatting

9 FRBR/FRAD/FRSAD MARCISBD RDA International Cataloguing Principles Metadata standards Advances in Web Development International Context

10 Growth of shared cataloguing Lower level cataloguing Catalogues not meeting user needs IFLA study to define the functional requirements of bibliographic records 10 Functional requirements for Bibliographic and Authority Data FRBR/FRAD/FRSAD [Source: Adapted from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]

11 11 Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (1998) Functional Requirements for Authority Data (2009) Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (2010) Ongoing review, eventual consolidation. FRBR/FRAD/FRSAD Functional requirements for Bibliographic and Authority Data [Source: Adapted from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]

12 Conceptual models – Identify & define the things that are important - entities – Identify & define the attributes that characterise the entities – Identify & define significant relationships between entities Functional requirements for Bibliographic and Authority Data FRBR/FRAD [Source: RDA : Resource description and access, Deirdre Kiorgaard. RDA information session for QUT students, August 31, 2010]

13 Define bibliographic entities – resources, people, families, corporate bodies, and subjects List their attributes Identify the relationships between the entities Map to user tasks 13 FRBR/FRAD Functional requirements for Bibliographic and Authority Data [Source: Adapted from: What you need to know about FRBR and FRAD when reading RDA, Pat Riva, May 2009]

14 are not cataloguing rules are not system models do not prescribe how they might be implemented 14 FRBR/FRAD Functional requirements for Bibliographic and Authority Data [Source: Adapted from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]

15 RDA uses FRBR and FRAD concepts, terms and user tasks RDA content and organisation reflect FRBR and FRAD – Attributes – Relationships 15 FRBR and RDA FRBR/FRAD [Source: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]

16 16 Paris Principles 1961 Achieved international standardisation Used as the basis of most cataloguing standards BUT Covered only textual works Focused on choice and form of entries International Cataloguing Principles

17 17 All types of materials All aspects of bibliographic and authority data Built on FRBR Model Underlying principles of RDA International Cataloguing Principles International Cataloguing Principles 2009

18 18 International Cataloguing Principles 2009 Principles: Convenience of users Common usage Representation Accuracy Sufficiency and necessity Significance International Cataloguing Principles

19 19 Principles (continued): Economy Consistency and standardisation Integration international-cataloguing-principles International Cataloguing Principles International Cataloguing Principles 2009

20 20 International Standard Bibliographic Description (1971) Aims Promotion of uniform bibliographic description Facilitates shared cataloguing Determined Required data elements Sequence of elements Prescribed punctuation Multiple ISBDs for different formats AACR2 framework based on ISBD ISBD

21 21 International Standard Bibliographic Description (2007) Aims unchanged Single consolidated ISBD that is format neutral Conformed to FRBR data elements Influenced RDA development, but do not dictate structure. control-44 ISBD

22 22 Machine Readable Code for catalogue data Based on layout of card catalogue Still the most widely used encoding standard in library systems. Developed beyond boundaries of AACR2 MARC

23 23 Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative MARC Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control (2008) US RDA Test (2010) MARC Standard insufficient for current and future needs

24 Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative Progress to date: Consultation with Libraries, MARC users, MARBI and other standards groups Defined requirements for the new bibliographic framework. Contracted Zepheira to develop model(s) for discussion within community 24 MARC

25 World wide web of information Metadata standards RDF Semantic web Linked Data

26 26 Developed and maintained by cultural and computer science sectors Metadata standards Developed for the National Science Digital Library (NSDL), now open to all metadata communities. Registry for Application profiles Defined a set of core metadata elements. RDA on OMR

27 27 ONIX Set of standards developed by Publishing industry Metadata standards Books Serials Licensing terms and rights information

28 Semantic Web Source: Video still from Intro to the Semantic Web by Manu Sporny

29 Semantic Web Source: Video still from Intro to the Semantic Web by Manu Sporny

30 Semantic Web “Now!.... That should clear up a few things around here!”

31 Linked Data 1.Use URIs as names for things 2.Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3.When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4.Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.

32 RDF Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model for labelling and linking information using URIs primer /#statements

33 Semantic Web and Linked Data Source: Network visualisation, Ruth Park, AustLit (www.austlit.edu.au), [Retrieved 19/10/2012]

34 RDA Today 2010 – Published June 2010 – Free public trial of Toolkit – Subscriptions available – US National Testing, 2 nd half 2010

35 2011 Full Report: Report and Recommendations of the U.S. RDA Test Coordinating Committee – Recommended implementation not before 2013, pending Rewording of text Changes to the content of RDA Significant progress towards replacing MARC – US National Libraries accepted recommendations – LC, Canada, Britain and Australia agreed to a joint implementation. RDA Today

36 Where are we at now? LC has announced a firm implementation date of March 1, LC has released revised training documentation Rewording of RDA text nearing completion Progress towards replacement of MARC continues. RDA Today

37 In Australia Training documentation has been developed and key personnel throughout Australia have received training. National Library of Australia - rolling implementation beginning January 2013 Libraries Australia ready to receive RDA records by early RDA Today

38 At the National Library of Australia Staff training January-March 2013 Policies System changes Update documentation RDA Today

39 Sources International Federation of Library Associations Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Editeur

40 Sources Oliver, Chris, Introducing RDA : a guide to the basics (London, Facet Publishing, 2010) Argus, Catherine, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for Authority Data (FRAD). [Powerpoint presentation, 2010] Kiorgaard, Deirdre, RDA : Resource description and access, [RDA information session for QUT students, August 31, 2010]

41 Sources ACOC Website description-and-access-rda-in-australia

42 Acronyms RDA Resource Description and Access JSC Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA COP Committee of Principals (JSC’s governing body) IFLA International Federation of Library Associations ICP International Cataloguing Principles (2009) ISBD International Standard Bibliographic Description FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative BFTI Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative RDF Resource Description Framework

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